Cold War and a New Western World
CH. 28: Cold War and a New Western World (1945-1965) I. Development of the Cold War A. Confrontation of the Superpowers 1. Two Superpowers stemmed from their different historical perspectives and their irreconcilable political ambitions U. S and the Soviet Union were the heirs of that European tradition of Power Politics sought to extend their way of life to the rest of the world 2. The Truman Doctrine: a.
President Harry Truman alarmed by British weakness and the possibility of soviet expansion into the eastern Mediterranean, responded with the Truman Doctrine: said that the U. S. would provide money to countries that claimed they were threatened by Communist expansion 3. The Marshall Plan: a. June 1947, The Marshall Plan intended to rebuild prosperity and stability, this program included $13 billion for the economic recovery of war-torn Europe 4.
In an article in foreign affairs in July 1947, George Kennan, American diplomat with much knowledge of Soviet affairs advocated a policy of Containment against further aggressive Soviet moves, Kennan favored the “adroit and vigilant application of Counter-force at a series of constantly shifting geographical and political points, corresponding to the shifts and maneuvers of Soviet policy” soviet blockade of Berlin in 1948, containment of the Soviet Union became formal American policy 5. New Military Alliances a. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): . Formed in April 1949, when Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal signed a treaty with the U. S and Canada 2. Powers agreed to provide mutual assistance if any one of them was attacked 6. Eastern European states. In 1949, formed the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) for Economic cooperation 7. 1955, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union organized a formal military alliance in the Warsaw Pact.
B. Globalization of the Cold War 1. The Korean War a. August 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed to divide the country into two separate occupation zones at the 38th parallel planned to hold national elections, restoration of peace to reunify Korea under an independent government U. S – Soviet relations deteriorated, 2 separate government emerged in Korea, a Communist one in the north and an anti- Communist one in the south b.
Tensions between the two governments ran high, on June 25, 1950 apparent approval of Joseph Stalin, North Korean troops invaded South Korea under the command of General Douglas MacArthur marched northward across the 38th parallel with the aim of unifying Korea under a single noncommunist 2. The 1st Vietnam War a. Negotiations broke down between Ho Chi Minh’s government and the returning French, war broke out in December 1946 b. 3 years, Vietminh increased in size and effectiveness, Ho Chi Minh’s fought against the French and became entangled in the Cold War as both the U. S and the new communist government in China c.
China provided military assistance to the Vietminh to protect, borders from hostile forces d. Americans supported the French but pressured the French government to prepare for an eventual transition to a non-Communist government in Vietnam e. Geneva Conference in 1954, the French public tired of fighting the “dirty war” in Indochina, agreed to a peace settlement with Ho Chi Minh’s Vietminh f. Vietnam was divided into a northern communist half known as the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and a non-Communist southern half based in Saigon known as the Republic of Vietnam 3. Escalating of the Cold War a.
Central Treaty Organization (CENTO): Great Britain, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and the U. S was intended to prevent the Soviet Union from expanding at the expense of its southern neighbors b. Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and the U. S formed the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) 4. Berlin crisis a. August 1957, the Soviet Union launched its 1st Intercontinental ballistic missile (IBM) Sputnik I – the 1st space satellite fueled by political debate, fears of a “missile gap” between the U. S. and the Soviet Union seized the American public b.
Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971), the new leader of the Soviet Union, attempted to take advantage of the American frenzy over missiles to solve the problem of West Berlin. November 1958, Khrushchev announced unless the West removed its forces from West Berlin in 6 months, turn over control of the access routes to Berlin to the East Germans c. August 31, 1961, East German workers under military supervision began the construction of the Berlin Wall – 100 miles of wall, topped by numerous watchtowers, surrounded West Berlin Berlin Wall became a powerful symbol of a divided Europe C.
Cuban Missile Crisis 1. Fidel Castro overthrown the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista and established a Soviet-supported totalitarian regime. 1961, American-supported attempt to invade Cuba via the Bay of Pigs and overthrow Castro’s regime ended in failure 2. 1962, Soviet Union decided to station nuclear missiles in Cuba, U. S. prepared to allow nuclear weapons within close striking distance of the American mainland U. S intelligence discovered a Soviet fleet carrying missiles was heading to Cuba, President Kennedy decided to blockade Cuba and prevent the fleet from reaching its detention II.
Europe and the World: Decolonization A. Africa: The Struggle for Independence 1. Kenya, widely publicized Mau movement among the Kikuyu peoples used terrorism to demand uhuru (Swahili for “freedom”) from the British 2. South Africa, political activity by local blacks began with the formation of the African National Congress (ANC) in 1912: group of intellectuals goal was to gain economic and political reforms, including full equality for educated Africans, framework of the existing systems 3.
Laws separating Whites and Blacks, creating a system of racial segregation in South Africa known as apartheid B. Conflict of the Middle East 1. The Arab-Israeli Dispute: a. Meeting of Arab leaders held in Jerusalem in 1964, Egypt lead in forming the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) to represent the interest of the Palestinians PLO believed that only the Palestinians peoples (and not Jewish immigrants from abroad) had the right to form a state in Palestine a guerrilla movement called al-Fatah, led by the PLO olitical leader Yasir Arafat (1929-2004) began to launch terrorist attacks on Israeli territory, prompting the Israeli government to raid PLO bases in Jordan in 1966 b. Israeli forces seized Jordanian territory on the West Bank of the Jordan River, occupied all of Jerusalem, and attacked Syrian military positions in the Golan Heights area along the Israeli-Syrian border in the Six Day War C. Asia: Nationalism and Communism 1. Indian National Congress: mostly Hindu, and the Muslim League British India’s Muslims and Hindus were divided and unwilling to accept a single Indian state 2.
Congress leaders, only Mahatma Gandhi objected to the division of India a Muslim woman, critical of his opposition to partition asked him, “If two brothers were living together in the same house and wanted to separate and live in two different houses, would you object? ” “Ah” Gandhi replied, “if only we could separate as two brothers, but we will not, it will be an Orgy of Blood. We shall tear ourselves asunder un the womb of the mother who bears us”. August 15, 1947: India and Pakistan became independent 3.
China under Communism a. Communist, under the leadership of Mao Zedong, built a strong base in North China People’s Liberation Army included nearly 1,000,000 troops b. Mao began a radical program, known as the Great Leap Forward, in 1958 – existing collective farms, normally the size of the traditional village, were combined into vast “people’s communes” each containing more than 30,000 people III. Recovery and Renewal in Europe A. The Soviet Union: From Stalin to Khrushchev 1.
Khrushchev extended the process of de-Stalinization by reducing the powers of the secret police and closing some of the Siberian prison camps Khrushchev’s revelations about Stalin at the 20th Congress caused turmoil in Communist ranks everywhere and encouraged a spirit of rebellion in Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe Soviet troops reacted by crushing an uprising in Hungary in 1956, and Khrushchev and the soviet leaders, fearful of further undermining the basic foundations of the regime, downplayed their de-Stalinization campaign B.
Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain 1. Stalinization: instituted Soviet-type, 5 year plans with emphasis on heavy industry rather than consumer goods began to collectivize agriculture – eliminated all non-Communist parties and established the institutions of repression- secret police and military forces communism- a foreign import- had not developed deep roots among the peoples of Eastern Europe C.
Western Europe: The revival of democracy and the economy 1. New Christian Democrats: connected to the prewar church- based parties – advocates of church interests and crusaded against both liberal and socialist causes new Christian Democrats were interested in democracy and in significant economic reforms strong in Italy and Germany and played a particularly important role in achieving Europe’s economic restoration 2.
France: Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970) a. Assumed leadership of some resistance groups and played an important role in ensuring the establishment of a French provisional government after the War declaration of the 4th Republic , return to a parliamentary system based on parties that de Gaulle considered weak, led him to withdraw from politics – formed the French Popular Movement, a decidedly rightist organization b. 958, de Gaulle drafted a new constitution for the 5th Republic enhanced the power of the President: have the right to choose prime minister, dissolved parliament and supervised both defense and foreign policy – de Gaulle believed in strong leadership and the new 5th republic was by no means a democratic system new president, de Gaulle sought to return France to the position of a great power believed that playing a pivotal role in the Cold War might enhance France’s stature 3.
Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967), the leader of the CDU, served as chancellor from 1949-1963, became the “founding hero” of the Federal Republic Sought respect for West Germany by cooperating with the U. S and the other Western European nations 4. beginning of the Korean War in June 1950 had unexpected repercussion for West Germany fear South Korea might fall to the Communist forces of the north lead many Germans and westerners to worry about the security of West Germany and led to calls for the rearmament of West Germany 5.
Adenauer’s Chancellorship associated with the resurrection of the West German economy referred to as the “economic miracle” guided by the minister of Finance, Ludwig Erhard, who pursued a policy of a new currency, free markets, low taxes, and elimination of controls, which, combined with Americans financial aid led to rapid economic growth 6.
Great Britain: Labor government, with Clement Attlee as prime minister, proceeded to enact reforms that created a modern Welfare State establishment of the British Welfare state began the nationalization of the Bank of England, the coal and steel industries, public transportations, and public utilities, such as electricity and gas area of social welfare, the new government enacted the National insurance Act and the National Health Service Act in 1946 D.
Western Europe: The Move Toward Unity 1. 1951, France, West Germany, the Benelux countries (Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg) and Italy formed the European Coal & Steel Community (ECSC) Purpose was to create a common market for coal and steel products among the 6 nations by eliminating tariffs and other trade barriers 2.
Six nations signed the Rome Treaty, which created the European Economic Community (EEC) known as the Common Market, eliminated customs barriers for the 6 member nations and created a large Free-Trade area protected from the rest of the world by a common external tariff encouraged cooperation and standardization in many aspects of the six nations’ economies IV. The United States and Canada: A new Era A. Decade of Upheaval: America in the 1960s 1. The Great Society: “welfare state” programs included health care for the elderly, a “war on poverty” to be fought with food stamps and the new job corps.
The new Department of Housing and Urban Development to deal with the problems of the cities and federal assistance for education 2. Eloquent Baptist minister named Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968), leader of a growing movement for radical equality and by the early 1960s a number of groups including King’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), organizing sit ins and demonstrations across the South to end racial segregation 3. After the assassination of Martin Luther King in 1968, 100 cities experienced riots.
The combination of riots and extremist comments by radical black leaders led to a “white backlash” and a severe division of the American population. V. Postwar Society and Culture in the Western World A. The Structure of European Society 1. Substantial increase in their real wages enabled the working classes to aspire to the consumption patterns of the middle class to aspire to the consumption patterns of the middle class, leading to the Consumer Society installment plan, introduced in the 1930s widespread in the 1950s and gave workers a imitate the middle class by buying such products as T.
V. , washing machines, refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, and stereos B. Woman in the Postwar Western World 1. Size of families, began to decline by the end of the 1950s largely responsible for the decline was the was the practice of Birth Control, invented in the 19th Century, the Condom was already in wide use, but the development in the 1960s of oral contraceptives, known as birth control pills, or simply the 2.
Women’s Liberation Movement: arise in the late 1960s, much of the theoretical foundation for the emergence of the postwar women’s liberation movement was evident in the work of Simone de Beauvoir Born into Catholic Middle class family and educated at the Sorbonne in Paris, teacher and later a novelist and writer maintained a lifelong relationship with Jean-Paul Sartre, her involvement in the existentialist movement, the leading intellectual movement of the time led to her involvement in political causes believed that she lived a “liberated” life for a 20th century, European woman, but for all her freedom , she still came to perceive that as a women, for all her freedom, she still came to perceive that as a women she faced limits that men did not. C. Postwar Art and Literature 1. Art: a. One of the styles that became synyomous with the emergence of the New York art was Abstract Expressionism “action painting” by one critic, Abstract expressionism was energetic and spontaneous, qualities evident in the enormous canvases of Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) such work as lavender mist: paint seems to explode, enveloping the viewer with emotion and movement, Pollock swirling forms and seemingly chaotic patterns broke all conventions of form and structure dip paintings, with their total abstraction, were extremely influential with other artists became celebrity’s b. 950s and the early 1960s emergence of Pop Art, which took images of popular culture and transformed them into works of fine art Andy Warhol (1930-1987) began as an advertising illustrator, became the most famous of the American Pop Artists. Adapted images from commercial art, such as Campbell’s soup cans and photographs of celebrities such as Marilyn Monroe 2. Literature a. Most famous proponent was the Irishman, Samuel Beckett (1906-1990), lived in France, Becketts’ Waiting for Godot (1952): the action on stage is not realistic two men wait incessantly for the appearance of someone, with whom they may or may not have an appointment – no background information on the two men is provided D. Philosophical Dilemma: Existentialism 1.
Philosophy of Existentialism caused by two worlds wars and the breakdown of traditional values reflected the anxieties of the 20th Century and became well known after World War II works of two Frenchmen Jean- Paul Sartre (1905-1980) and Albert Camus (1913-1960) – central point of the existentialism of Sarte and Campus was the absence of God in the Universe The death of God, meant that humans had no preordained destiny and were utterly alone in the universe, with no future and no hope. E. Revival of the Religion 1. Catholic Church, attempt at religious renewal also came from a charismatic pope. Pope John XXIII (1881-1963) reigned as pope for only a short time 1958-1963 but sparked a dramatic revival of Catholicism when he summoned the 21st ecumenical council of the Catholic Church known as Vatican II the Council liberalized a number of Catholic practices F. Explosion of Popular Culture 1. 957, film the seventh seal, by the Swedish director Ingmar Bergman (1918 – 2007) good example of the successful European Art Film films caused him to be viewed as “an artist of comparable stature to a novelist or playwright” 2. Francois Truffaut (1932-1984) in France and Federico Fellini (1920-1993) in Italy: gloried in experimenting with subject matter and technique and produced films dealing with more complex and daring themes than Hollywood would attempt 3. 1950s, American Figures such as Chuck Berry, Little Richard, and Elvis Presley, inspired the Beatles and other British Performers who led an invasion of the U. S in the 1960s creating sensation and in part sparking new rockers in America