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Computer Hardware Assignment

Computer Hardware Assignment

COMPUTER HARDWARE HIT 1403. Assignment 1 Bektemir Kassymov Table of Contents INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3   Hard Disk ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5   History  of  hard  disks. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Technology  of  recording  data  on  hard  disks. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6 RAM (Random-Access Memory) ………………………………………………………………………………… 7   History  of  RAM  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. CPU (Central Processing Unit) ……………………………………………………………………………………… 8   Progress of CPU ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8   MOTHERBOARD …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10   VIDEOCARD ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1   OPTICAL DRIVE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12   SOUND CARD ………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………….. 12   POWER SUPPLY UNIT …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3   PERIPHERALS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13   Input  devices   ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3   . 1 Output  Devices  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………   1 REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15 2 «Personal computer hardware are component devices which are typically installed into or peripheral to a computer case to create a personal computer upon which system software is installed including a firmware interface such as a BIOS and an operating system which supports application software that performs the operator’s desired functions. Wikipedia «What I need for real happiness? Just an upgrade to Nvidia 580 GTX, Core i7 3. 2 Ghz, 16 GB RAM, and SSD as big as possible» My friend INTRODUCTION The word “computer” means something that can compute. The need for automatisation and processing of data, including calculations, arose very long time ago. At this moment computer and software industry is one of the most important fields of the developed and developing countries. The reasons f the rapid growth of computer industry: low costs, comparative advantage for many business applications, ease of use, the ability of individual interaction with computers without intermediaries and restrictions, high capacity for processing, storage and delivery of information, high reliability, ease of repair and maintenance, the possibility of expanding and adapt to the peculiarities of using computers, the availability of software that covers almost all spheres of human activity, and powerful systems to develop new software.

Computing power is constantly increasing, and their field of application is constantly expanding. 3 Computers can be united into networks that allow millions of people easily share information from one computer to another anywhere in the world. So what constitutes such unique human invention? The first sign by which computers differ is a platform. We can distinguish two major PC platforms: Platform of IBM compatible computers includes a huge range and variety of computers, from simple family computers to very complex and hi-tech servers. It’s the platform that is usually known by user as a PC.

Actually it is not obligatory that best IBM – compatible computers should be manufactured by IBM, this “blue giant” only created such standard, but now IBM is just one of the many PC manufacturers. Another platform – Apple is represented by respectively not so popular computers Macintosh. They use their own, special software, and their “filling” is significantly differs from IBM. Typically, IBM-compatible PCs are made up of three parts (blocks): the system unit, monitor (display) keyboard (a device that allows you to enter characters into your computer).

Computers are available in a portable form – in the “laptop” (2-5kg laptop) Here, the system unit, monitor and keyboard are enclosed in one case: if you remove the system block and look inside, you can see all details corresponding to the next PC architecture. However, there are devices that are in any case set on a modern PC. Typical Personal Computer is composed from a case and following parts: • Motherboard. On the motherboard is placed the central processor (CPU), including the cooling system, the RAM, and another parts, and expansion slots. ? ? Random-access Memory (RAM), and cache (usually already included in CPU) Read-only Memory (ROM) Buses – PCI, PCI-E, FireWire, AGP (not used anymore), ISA (not used anymore), EISA (not used anymore) • Power supply unit • Storage devices controllers – IDE, SCSI, SATA, SAS, and another types of the storage devices that are placed directly on the motherboard on the expansion buses. • Optical drives – CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, Blu-Ray-ROM (R/RW) • Data storage devices ? HDD 4 ? SSD Furthermore, Hardware also contains external components – peripheral devices: • Input devices ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Keyboard Mouse, trackball or touchpad Joystick Scanner Monitor (Display) Speakers (headphones) Printing devices (types may vary: printer plotter etc. ) Modem (dial-up, ADSL, 3G) • Output devices Hard Disk Hard disc is core part of hardware, often called “Vinchester” or “HDD”, the device of storing data or information, based on the principle of magnetic recording. Usually it is used as the main storage device in most of computers. One of the main and most important characteristics of hard disk is its capacity, which is the factor that defines how many personal data you can store on your computer.

Nowadays latest high-technology hard disks can store up to 3 TB. The second characteristic is speed of hard drive, how fast you can access to files. Usually it depends on how fast the disk can rotate. Nowadays normal performance is 5400 and 7200 rpm (rotations per minute). Also one more important factor is size of cache memory. Usually it varies from 8 to 32 MB, and more cache memory you have means more rapidly you will access to your files. 5 History of hard disks. On the illustration below is presented RAMAC, first hard disk in the world engineered by IBM in 1956.

It’s weight was over a ton and it could store 5 MB. “The 350 Disk Storage Unit consisted of the magnetic disk memory unit with its access mechanism, the electronic and pneumatic controls for the access mechanism, and a small air compressor. ” (http://www. whatsthelatest. net/for-therecords/worlds-largest-hard-drive/) Producing it gave the impulse for subsequent worldwide usage of hard disks and to development and implementation of computer technologies in general. We still use the system, which was engineered in 1956.

But today it’s completely another image, the world’s most-capable hard disk by this moment is made by Western Digital, it allows you to store up to 3 TB, and is compatible to the standard PC format (3,5”). It allows user to store very huge amount of movies, photos and other personal files. (According to article http://www. wdc. com/en/products/products. aspx? id=120) . Technology of recording data on hard disks. The technology of information recording is similar to magnetophone. The surface of the disk is rotating relatively to the scanning head.

Temporary electricity is affecting the surface of a disk and writes data into certain sectors. 6 RAM (Random-Access Memory) Random-access memory is the one of most important units of computer. Precisely from RAM the CPU takes programs and input data for processing, in it CPU writes the results. It is so rapid so that CPU doesn’t need to wait while reading or writing data from/to the memory. Random memory is energy-dependent environment in which programs are located while they are being used. After the usage is over, information is deleted from RAM.

This is happening automatically, after it’s needed to renew and write certain files into RAM. After computer shuts down, all information from RAM is deleted. The size of RAM is directly connected with the ability of using certain programs. In case of memory insufficiency many programs will not work at all or work very slowly. The definition “Random Access Memory” means that handling with data located in RAM doesn’t depend on its’ position or order in memory, that explains the word “random”. History of RAM

An early type of widespread writable random-access memory was magnetic core memory, developed from 1955 to 1975, and subsequently used in most computers up until the development and adoption of the static and dynamic integrated RAM circuits in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Before this, computers used relays, delay line/delay memory, or various kinds of vacuum tube arrangements to implement “main” memory functions (i. e. , hundreds or thousands of bits), some of which were random access, some not.

Drum memory could be expanded at low cost but retrieval of nonsequential memory items required knowledge of the physical layout of the drum to optimize speed. Latches built out of vacuum tube triodes, and later, out of discrete transistors, were used for smaller and faster memories such as random-access register banks and registers. Prior to the development of integrated ROM circuits, permanent (or read-only) random-access memory was often constructed using semiconductor diode matrices driven by address decoders, or specially wound core memory planes. (http://www. madsmik. k/wordpress/category/hardware/ram/) 7 CPU (Central Processing Unit) Without any doubt, CPU is the “heart and brain” of any computer. Precisely CPU undertakes main functions of processing of data arrays. Processor is a device that can handle the code and determines the main features of the computer information processing. It plays the role of logical-arithmetic device that can execute billions of operations in one second. Structurally, the processors can be presented either as large single-crystal integrated circuits – chips, as well as in several chips, power electronic circuits and devices.

Most often presented as a processor chip located on the motherboard. On the chip is written its clock frequency and the manufacturer. Main characteristics of CPU are: clock frequency, performance, power consumption and architecture. Two typical components of a CPU are the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs arithmetic and logical operations, and the control unit (CU), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary. Progress of CPU

The history of CPU starts from June 30, 1945, when matematican John Von Neumann distributed his handwork paper called “First Draft of a report on the EDVAC”. This report showed disadvantages of EDVAC system, which used to be the most progressive before. The programs written for EDVAC were stored in high-speed computer memory rather than specified by the physical wiring of the computer. However, the best way to describe the progress of CPU (and all computer hardware as well) is to introduce Moore’s law. The number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years». 8 Regarding to CPU, Moore’s law is becoming more noticeable due to parallelism, lastest processors use multi-thread technology with multiple-core chip designs. 9 MOTHERBOARD In personal computers, a motherboard is the central printed circuit board. In many modern computers it holds many of the crucial components of the system, providing connectors for other peripherals.

The motherboard is sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, or, on Apple computers, the logic board. (Vranesic, 2009) By another words, motherboards – are complex multilayered printed circuit boards, which connect other elements of the computer. CPU and motherboard are the most interrelated parts of a computer, so it’s very important question whether they are compatible to each other. Precisely, more powerful and more expensive motherboard you buy – more powerful and more expensive processor you should choose, and vice versa.

In choosing such an important part for your computer, the motherboard, it is recommended to consult its major specifications: • Chipset – used to determine the type of installed CPU frequency and bit system bus, and modes of operation; • Bus frequency (speed) – the higher, faster and more data will come as a unit of time; • the maximum amount of fixed assets – up to several hundred megabytes; • the type of memory supported – DDR, RIMM, SDRAM; • Support for CPU types; • the number of slots PCI, ISA, AMR; • availability of operating modes, interfaces, ports, and compatibility with other components of the computer and other technical parameters. 0 VIDEOCARD The video card is an expansion card that allows the computer to send graphical information to a video display device such as a monitor or projector. (Vranesic, 2009) Most video cards offer added functions, such as accelerated rendering of 3D scenes and 2D graphics, video capture, TV-tuner adapter, MPEG-2/MPEG-4 decoding, FireWire, light pen, TV output, or the ability to connect multiple monitors (multi-monitor). Other modern high performance video cards are used for more graphically demanding purposes, such as PC games.

The main characteristics of video card are memory and amount of bits. Today’s graphics applications and games require a video card the presence of an increasing amount of memory (preferably more than 1GB). Many modern computers do not have video expansion cards but instead have GPUs integrated directly onto the motherboard. This allows for a less expensive computer but also for a less powerful graphics system. This option is wise for the average business and home user not interested in advanced graphics capabilities or the latest games 11 OPTICAL DRIVE

Optical drives retrieve and/or store data on optical discs like CDs, DVDs, and BDs (Blu-ray discs) which hold much more information than classic portable media options like the floppy disk. Most optical drives can play and/or record onto a large number of different disc formats. Popular optical drive formats include CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, DVD, DVD-RAM, DVDR, DVD+R, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-R DL, DVD+R DL, BD-R, and BD-RE. By this moment, most advanced technology of recording data on optical drives is BluRay. Nevertheless, it is not so popular due to to the fact that its price is still high.

Most common to usual user are CD and DVD formats. CD(CD-R,CD-RW) disk can store up to 700 MB One sided DVD can store 4. 7 GB, double-sided up 17. 08 GB Blue-ray can store up to 50 GB. SOUND CARD The sound card is an expansion card that allows the computer to send audio information to an audio device like speakers or a pair of headphones. Since the motherboard, case and peripheral cards are designed with compatibility in mind, the side of the sound card fits just outside the back of the case when installed, making its ports available for use.

Most sound cards have ports for a joystick, speaker, microphone and an auxiliary device. Still other cards may have inputs and outputs designed for more advanced tasks such as audio editing and professional audio output. 12 POWER SUPPLY UNIT The main role of power supply unit is to supply other components of the computer with the electricity. Precisely, it converts general-purpose alternating current (AC) electric power from the electric socket (voltage depends on country, e. g. in Malaysia 240 V) to low-voltage (for a desktop computer: 12 V, 5 V, 5VSB, 3V3, ? V, and ? 12 V) DC power for the internal components of the computer. Most of models are able to accept any voltage and frequency. Most modern desktop computer power supplies conform to the ATX form factor. Power supply’s main characteristic is its power range. Small form factor systems as typical home computers don’t have big requirements (web-surfing and office programs), so power supply ranges are from 500 W to lower than 300 W. But gamers and entuasists usually choose most advanced and high-end – 800–1400 W supplies.

However most powerful ones are units are up to 2 kW strong which are intended mainly for servers and, to a lesser degree, extreme performance computers with multiple processors, several hard disks and multiple graphics cards. PERIPHERALS Input devices Input device is any usually (peripheral) physical unit that, transfers data and signals input into computer system. Keyboad – a human-interface device designed for input text data from user into computer. Modern keyboard usually consists of 104 reinforced in a single case of keys.

Mouse – In computing, a mouse is a pointing device that functions by detecting twodimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. Physically, a mouse consists of an object held under one of the user’s hands, with one or more buttons. It sometimes features other elements, such as “wheels”, which allow the user to perform various system-dependent operations, or extra buttons or features that can add more control or dimensional input. 13 Touchpad – is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user’s fingers to a relative position on screen.

They are a common feature of laptop computer Another types of input devices: Scanner, Video camera, Web-camera, Microphone, Modem, Trackball, Joystick, Graphics pad, Touchscreen, Gamepad, Gaming Steering Wheel. Output Devices Monitor (Visual display unit) – is an electronic visual display for computers. The monitor comprises the display device, circuitry, and an enclosure. The display device in modern monitors is typically a thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) thin panel, while older monitors use a cathode ray tube about as deep as the screen size.

Video projector – device that receives a video signal and projects the corresponding image on a projection screen using a lens system. Printer – produces a text and/or graphics of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. Some printers, commonly known as network printers, have built-in network interfaces, typically wireless and/or Ethernet based, and can serve as a hard copy device for any user on the network.

Multimedia speakers – Computer speakers, or multimedia speakers, are speakers external to a computer, that disable the lower fidelity built-in speaker. They often have a low-power internal amplifier. The standard audio connection is a 3. 5 mm (approximately 1/8 inch) stereo jack plug often color-coded lime green (following the PC 99 standard) for computer sound cards. 14 REFERENCES Carl Hamacher , Zvonko Vranesic, Safwat Zaky, 2009, Computer Organization. http://clk. about. com/? zi=3/1bc&sdn=sound+card&cdn=term1&tm=2&f=10&tt=22&b t=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//pcsupport. bout. com/od/componentprofiles/p/p_sound. ht m http://pcsupport. about. com/od/componentprofiles/p/p_video. htm http://clk. about. com/? zi=3/1bc&sdn=optical+drive&cdn=term1&tm=3&f=10&tt=22& bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//pcsupport. about. com/od/componentprofiles/p/p_odd. ht m http://pcsupport. about. com/od/componentprofiles/p/p_ps. htm http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Mouse_(computing) http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Motherboard http://www. webopedia. com/TERM/H/hardware. html http://xard. ru/