Accident Spot Identification Using Gsm & Gps
GPS and GSM for Accident Spot Identification ABSTRACT: The main intention of this project is to find the accident spot at any place and intimating it to ambulance through the gps and gsm networks. Now-a-days, it became very difficult to know that an accident occurred and to locate the position where it has happened. It’s very difficult for the lives of victims until anyone noticed and informed it to the ambulance or to any hospital and if it occurs in remote areas there will be no hope to survive.
To overcome these, gps and gsm technologies are used. The gps based vehicle accident identification module contains a vibrating sensor and a gps modem connected to the microcontroller. When an accident occurs ,the vibration sensor gives the signal to the microcontroller, which sends the information to the control room through gsm network. HARDWARE COMPONENTS: Microcontroller GPS modem GSM modem rs232 Serial Cable Power Supply SOFTWARE TOOLS: Keil compiler SOFTWARE Embedded ‘C’ or Assembly Language Embedded System
Embedded systems are electronic devices that incorporate microprocessors with in their implementations. Embedded systems designers usually have a significant grasp of hardware technologies. They use specific programming languages and software to develop embedded systems and manipulate the equipment. Embedded systems often use a (relatively) slow processor and small memory size to minimize costs. An embedded system is a special-purpose system in which the computer is completely encapsulated by or dedicated to the device or system it controls.
Unlike a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer, an embedded system performs one or a few pre-defined tasks, usually with very specific requirements. Since the system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it, reducing the size and cost of the product. Embedded systems are often mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale. GSM Technology Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) is a set of ETSI standards specifying the infrastructure for a digital cellular service.
GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital mobile telephone system that is widely used in many parts of the world. GSM uses a variation of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and is the most widely used of the three digital wireless telephone technologies (TDMA, GSM, and CDMA). GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down a channel with two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot. GSM operates in the 900MHz, 1800MHz, or 1900 MHz frequency bands. GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is the technology that underpins most of the world’s mobile phone networks.
The GSM platform is a hugely successful wireless technology and an unprecedented story of global achievement and cooperation. GSM has become the world’s fastest growing communications technology of all time and the leading global mobile standard, spanning 218 countries. GSM is an open, digital cellular technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services. GSM operates in the 900MHz and 1. 8GHz bands GSM supports data transfer speeds of up to 9. 6 kbps, allowing the transmission of basic data services such as SMS.
Everyday, millions of people are making phone calls by pressing a few buttons. Little is known about how one person’s voice reaches the other person’s phone that is thousands of miles away. Even less is known about the security measures and protection behind the system. The complexity of the cell phone is increasing as people begin sending text messages and digital pictures to their friends and family. The cell phone is slowly turning into a handheld computer. All the features and advancements in cell phone technology require a backbone to support it.
When a mobile subscriber roams into a new location area (new VLR), the VLR automatically determines that it must update the HLR with the new location information, which it does using an SS7 Location Update Request Message. The Location Update Message is routed to the HLR through the SS7 network, based on the global title translation of the IMSI that is stored within the SCCP Called Party Address portion of the message. The HLR responds with a message that informs the VLR whether the subscriber should be provided service in the new location.
GPS TECHNOLOGY: The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U. S. Department of Defense. GPS was originally intended for military applications, but in the 1980s, the government made the system available for civilian use. GPS works in any weather conditions, anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day. There are no subscription fees or setup charges to use GPS. GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth.
GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the user’s exact location. Essentially, the GPS receiver compares the time a signal was transmitted by a satellite with the time it was received. The time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the satellite is. Now, with distance measurements from a few more satellites, the receiver can determine the user’s position and display it on the unit’s electronic map. Micro controller Microcontrollers as the name suggests are small controllers.
They are like single chip computers that are often embedded into other systems to function as processing/controlling unit. Microcontroller – A single chip used to control other devices. Any microcomputer system requires memory to store a sequence of instructions making up a program, parallel port or serial port for communicating with an external system, timer / counter for control purposes like generating time delays, Baud rate for the serial port, apart from the controlling unit called the Central Processing Unit.
Micro controller (AT89C51) In this project work we are using AT89C51 micro-controller. This micro-controller plays a major role. Micro-controllers were originally used as components in complicated process-control systems. However, because of their small size and low price, Micro-controllers are now also being used in regulators for individual control loops. In several areas Micro-controllers are now outperforming their analog counterparts and are cheaper as well.
A Micro controller consists of a powerful CPU tightly coupled with memory RAM, ROM or EPROM), various I / O features such as Serial ports, Parallel Ports, Timer/Counters, Interrupt Controller, Data Acquisition interfaces-Analog to Digital Converter (ADC), Digital to Analog Converter (ADC), everything integrated onto a single Silicon Chip. It does not mean that any micro controller should have all the above said features on chip, Depending on the need and area of application for which it is designed, The ON-CHIP features present in it may or may not include all the individual section said
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF 89C51 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF Micro controller above. Any microcomputer system requires memory to store a sequence of instructions making up a program, parallel port or serial port for communicating with an external system, timer / counter for control purposes like generating time delays, Baud rate for the serial port, apart from the controlling unit called the Central Processing Unit Features 1. 8 Bit CPU optimized for control applications 2. Extensive Boolean processing (Single – bit Logic) Capabilities. 3. On – Chip Flash Program Memory 4. On – Chip Data RAM 5.
Bi-directional and Individually Addressable I/O Lines 6. Multiple 16-Bit Timer/Counters 7. Full Duplex UART 8. Multiple Source / Vector / Priority Interrupt Structure 9. On – Chip Oscillator and Clock circuitry. 10. On – Chip EEPROM 11. One Serial communication port MAX 232 The MAX232 from Maxim was the first IC which in one package contains the necessary drivers (two) and receivers (also two), to adapt the RS-232 signal voltage levels to TTL logic. It became popular, because it just needs one voltage (+5V) and generates the necessary RS-232 voltage levels (approx. 10V and +10V) internally. This greatly simplified the design of circuitry. Circuitry designers no longer need to design and build a power supply with three voltages (e. g. -12V, +5V, and +12V), but could just provide one +5V power supply, e. g. with the help of a simple 78×05 voltage converter. The MAX232 has a successor, the MAX232A. The ICs are almost identical, however, the MAX232A is much more often used (and easier to get) than the original MAX232, and the MAX232A only needs external capacitors 1/10th the capacity of what the original MAX232 needs.
It should be noted that the MAX 232(A) is just a driver/receiver. It does not generate the necessary RS-232 sequence of marks and spaces with the right timing, it does not decode the RS-232 signal, and it does not provide a serial/parallel conversion. “All it does is to convert signal voltage levels”. The MAX 232(A) has two receivers (converts from RS-232 to TTL voltage levels) and two drivers (converts from TTL logic to RS-232 voltage levels). This means only two of the RS-232 signals can be converted in each direction. The old MC1488/1498 combo provided four drivers and receivers.
The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1. 3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0. 5 V, and can accept ±30-V inputs. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. The RS232 standard is not TTL compatible; therefore, it requires a line driver such as the MAX232 chip to convert RS232 voltage levels to TTL levels, and vice versa. The interfacing of 8051 with RS232 connectors via the MAX232 chip is the main topic.
The 8051 has two pins that are used specifically for transferring and receiving data serially. These two pins are called TXD and RXD and a part of the port 3 group (P3. 0 and P3. 1). Pin 11 of the 8051 is assigned to TXD and pin 10 is designated as RXD. These pins are TTL compatible; therefore, they require a line driver to make them RS232 compatible. One such line driver is the MAX232 chip. [pic] Fig 8051 connection to RS232 MAX232 converts from RS232 voltage levels to TTL voltage levels, and vice versa. One advantage of the MAX232 chip is that it uses a +5V power source which, is the same as the source voltage for the 8051.
In the other words, with a single +5V power supply we can power both the 8051 and MAX232, with no need for the power supplies that are common in many older systems. The MAX232 has two sets of line drivers for transferring and receiving data. The line drivers used for TXD are called T1 and T2, while the line drivers for RXD are designated as R1 and R2. In many applications only one of each is used. GSM (Global system for mobile communication) Modem A modem (modulator-demodulator) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information.
The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. A GSM modem is a specialized type of modem which accepts a SIM card, and operates over a subscription to a mobile operator, just like a mobile phone. From the mobile operator perspective, a GSM modem looks just like a mobile phone. A GSM modem can be an external modem device, such as the Wavecom FASTRACK Modem. Insert a GSM SIM card into this modem, and connect the modem to an available serial port on your computer. A GSM modem can be a PC Card installed in a notebook computer, such as the Nokia Card Phone.
A GSM modem could also be a standard GSM mobile phone with the appropriate cable and software driver to connect to a serial port on your computer. Phones such as the Nokia 7110 with a DLR-3 cable, or various Ericsson phones, are often used for this purpose. A dedicated GSM modem (external or PC Card) is usually preferable to a GSM mobile phone. This is because of some compatibility issues that can exist with mobile phones. For example, if you wish to be able to receive inbound MMS messages with your gateway, and you are using a mobile phone as your modem, you must utilize a mobile phone that does not support WAP push or MMS.
This is because the mobile phone automatically processes these messages, without forwarding them via the modem interface. Similarly some mobile phones will not allow you to correctly receive SMS text messages longer than 160 bytes (known as “concatenated SMS” or “long SMS”). This is because these long messages are actually sent as separate SMS messages, and the phone attempts to reassemble the message before forwarding via the modem interface. (We’ve observed this latter problem utilizing the Ericsson R380, while it does not appear to be a problem with many other Ericsson models. When you install your GSM modem, or connect your GSM mobile phone to the computer, be sure to install the appropriate Windows modem driver from the device manufacturer. To simplify configuration, the Now SMS/MMS Gateway will communicate with the device via this driver. An additional benefit of utilizing this driver is that you can use Windows diagnostics to ensure that the modem is communicating properly with the computer. The Now SMS/MMS gateway can simultaneously support multiple modems, provided that your computer hardware has the available communications port resources.
Architecture of GSM network A GSM network is composed of several functional entities, whose functions and interfaces are specified. Figure 1 shows the layout of a generic GSM network. The GSM network can be divided into three broad parts. The Mobile Station is carried by the subscriber. The Base Station Subsystem controls the radio link with the Mobile Station. The Network Subsystem, the main part of which is the Mobile services Switching Center (MSC), performs the switching of calls between the mobile users, and between mobile and fixed network users.
The MSC also handles the mobility management operations. Not shown are the Operations A GSM network is composed of several functional entities, whose functions and interfaces are specified. Figure shows the layout of a generic GSM network. The GSM network can be divided into three broad parts. Subscriber carries the Mobile Station. The Base Station Subsystem controls the radio link with the Mobile Station. The Network Subsystem, the main part of which is the Mobile services Switching Center (MSC), performs the switching of calls between the mobile users, and between mobile and fixed network users.
The MSC also handles the mobility management operations. Not shown is the Operations intendance Center, which oversees the proper operation and setup of the network. The Mobile Station and the Base Station Subsystem communicate across the Um interface, also known as the air interface or radio link. The Base Station Subsystem communicates with the Mobile services Switching Center across the A interface. [pic] Smart modem(GSM/GPRS) Analogic’s GSM Smart Modem is a multi-functional, ready to use, rugged and versatile modem that can be embedded or plugged into any application.
The Smart Modem can be customized to various applications by using the standard AT commands. The modem is fully type-approved and can directly be integrated into your projects with any or all the features of Voice, Data, Fax, SMS, and Internet etc. Smart Modem kit contains the following items: 1. Analogic’s GSM/GPRS Smart Modem 2. SMPS based power supply adapter. 3. 3 dBi antenna with cable (optional: other types) 4. Data cable (RS232) 5. User Manual Temperature Range: Operating temperature: from -200C to +550C Storage temperature: from -250C to +700C
Installing the modem: To install the modem, plug the device on to the supplied SMPS Adapter. For Automotive applications fix the modem permanently using the mounting slots (optional as per your requirement dimensions). Inserting/ Removing the SIM Card: To insert or Remove the SIM Card, it is necessary to press the SIM holder ejector button with Sharp edged object like a pen or a needle. With this, the SIM holder comes out a little, then pulls it out and insert or remove the SIM Card [pic] Fig 2. 6. 2 Inserting/Removing the sim card into the modem
Make sure that the ejector is pushed out completely before accessing the SIM Card holder do not remove the SIM card holder by force or tamper it (it may permanently damage). Place the SIM Card Properly as per the direction of the installation. It is very important that the SIM is placed in the right direction for its proper working condition. Connecting External Antenna Connect GSM Smart Modem to the external antenna with cable end with SMA male. The Frequency of the antenna may be GSM 900/1800 MHz. The antenna may be (0 dbi, 3 dbi or short length L-type antenna) as per the field conditions and signal conditions.
DC Supply Connection The Modem will automatically turn ON when connection is given to it. The following is the Power Supply Requirement: Connecting Modem to external devices: RS232 can be used to connect to the external device through the D-SUB/ USB (for USB model only) device that is provided in the modem. ———————– INTERRUPT CONTROL ON-CHIP FLASH ON-CHIP RAM ON CHIP RAM TIMER 1 TIMER 0 OSC BUS CONTROL 4 I/O PORTS SERIAL PORT CPU EXTERNAL INTERRUPTS COUNTER INPUTS P0 P1 P2 P3 Tx Rx