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Moral Studies

Moral Studies

MORAL EDUCATION Table of Content 1. What is moral value? 1. 1 Introduction……………………………………………………. 2 1. 2 What is value ……………………………………………………. 2 1. 3 Types of Value……………………………………………………. 3 1. 4 Aspect of Value……………………………………………………. 3 1. 5 Value Functions ……………………………………………………. 4 2. Subject Case 2. 1 Subject Reference……………………………………………………. 5 Moral Principle Studies 2. 3 Studies 1……………………………………………………. 6 2. 4 Studies 2……………………………………………………. 7 2. 5 Studies 3……………………………………………………. 8 2. 6 Studies 4……………………………………………………. 9 3. Strategies and Prevention . 1 Strategies 1………………………………………………………10 3. 2 Strategies 2………………………………………………………10 3. 3 Strategies 3………………………………………………………11 3. 4 Strategies 4………………………………………………………11 4. Summary 4. 1 Perception 1 ………………………………………………………12 4. 2 Perception 2………………………………………………………12 4. 3 Perception 3………………………………………………………12 4. 4 Perception 4………………………………………………………13 5. References……………………………………………………… 14 What is moral value? Moral Value is an understanding of how, why, and to what extent humans should value things, whether it is a person, idea, object, or anything else.

Moral value emphasizes philosophy of “good”, “accurate” and “wise” responsibility of a human in current society. Peoples nowadays view moral values as part of obligations in life; because people believe that high moral value will earned them respect and trust from family, friends and the society. Morality includes also good attitude, it is wise to show respect and tolerance when dealing with other peoples and acceptance to others weaknesses, as it is not accurate to humiliate and to look down on the other person.

The importance of moral value has brought Moral Studies into Malaysian education system to groom good and responsible individuals through the development, appreciation and practice of the moral values as a mature-minded person in life. In Malaysia, moral value has also touched in religious wisdom, as enshrined in the first principle of the Rukunegara, ‘Belief in God”. Every Malaysian is educated since the start to possess values such as politeness and graciousness towards everyone surrounding us. Malaysians learned to accept and respect different beliefs and culture through Moral Studies.

It has influenced peoples the good qualities of different value, which differ from the Malaysian way of life. What is value? The main meaning of “Value” is described as how human will determine and perceive the weight of the “thing”, after analyzing and perceiving how important, and significance the “thing” was. Value differs from each individuals, because value, is believe to have no boundaries or infinity. In another perception, “value” as in moral philosophy by researcher means; Suffean Hussin (1993) defined values as the quality, benefit and importance of a behaviour, principle, activity or object

Alhabshi (1995) stated that individuals or societies respect values. In addition, he said that values are related to a system of belief based on what is assumed good or bad by an individual or a society. Philosophers usually differentiates value into – Instrumental values Value of objects, both physical objects and abstract objects, not as ends-in-themselves but a means of achieving something else. It is not valued for its own sake, but because it contributes to some further purpose, or because it helps bring about something else of value. Intrinsic Values Something is said to be the value that thing has “in itself,” or “for its own sake,” or “as such,” or “in its own right. ” It is value for its own benefits and does not contribute to further purpose. From understanding, moral value in life is branches into different sorts, – Aspect of Materialism Materialism can be defined as a common sense of desire to pursue wealth and other tangible things that can provide physical comforts that ignores the importance of spiritual values.

It also involves the desire to live in luxury and having fine expensive items. – Moral Aspect Values in the life of an individual with morals are not differentiated quantitatively. Wrongdoing against the practice of moral value is still considered inaccurate albeit any reasons. It is still not acceptable in the teachings of morality. The only way to triumph moral values is with own practice of good and healthy attitude and doings. – Life Intrinsically The value of an item is dependent on the individual, for example the value of being rich.

Most people value life and its achievements from the perspective of wealth and richness, but do not recognize trust, honesty, and contentment as forward-looking attributes that help in overall satisfaction. However, if we view wealth from the point of human personality, moral values and quality of life, then person who is rich does not necessarily mean he or she has great amounts of money. Value functions as in different explanation; – Consistent Standard in People’s Actions Moral requirements should be based on standard of rationality.

People have a tendency to believe that, they are who they think they are. If they believe wrongdoings is against the teachings of morality and will, they will not cross their boundaries. They assumed wise people do the accurate decision while at the same time they do not belong to the opposite. – Guide in Solving Moral Conflicts When solving conflicts, we will analyze the situation and condition. Note the main reason of conflict and find a solution. This will often include all consideration such as commitment, responsibility, outcome, sequences etc.

In many cases, effective conflict resolution can make the difference between positive and negative outcomes. Therefore, wise and accurate decision has to be corresponding by guiding to all understanding of morality. – Limit against Actions and Conduct by Individuals or Society Individuals or the society such as parents, teachers, peers etc also has the right to restrict a person’s conduct. People who care about us will try their best effort to make sure we are right in the path of life, to advice the right and wrong of every doing base on morality and not against the law.

They restrict our conduct in order to receive acceptance and affection from others. Subject Case The subject mention in this report has brought into discussion upon knowing the inaccurate immorality act of certain people in Malaysia. KUALA LUMPUR: Seven Pos Malaysia staff are among 13 people detained by the police in connection with credit card interception and fraud amounting to about RM1 million. One of the other suspects is a National Registration Department (JPN) general worker. Initial police investigations have revealed the postmen might have been in the payroll of a syndicate.

The suspects, aged between 25 and 40, were nabbed by a team of police officers from the Cheras police headquarters at separate locations in the Klang Valley between April 1 and 9… … “They are suspected to be involved in these activities (credit card interception and fraud) since 2009. ” … the police nabbed a man and seized 10 fake credit cards purportedly from well-known banks. “Our investigations revealed that a syndicate used postmen to intercept the credit cards of victims for a fee of between RM50 and RM100 for each successful interception”. “Pos Malaysia will not compromise with such misconduct… and will not tolerate such behaviour from among our staff,” he said in a statement here today. Stating the company viewed the irresponsible act seriously and that the incident is very much regretted, he added: “The employees have been dismissed from their duties immediately as we have a no-tolerance policy towards the tampering and mistreatment of mail and we do not condone such irresponsible and deviant behaviour amongst our postal staff,” …the syndicate would remove the chip from the original credit card and insert it into a fake one. A fake chip will then be fixed into the original card before it is returned to the owner by post. ” Quoted from : www. mmail. com. my/content/69261-postmen-among-13-nabbed-credit-card-fraud 1. Against the rules and teachings of God “Social morality relates to moral standards, social norms, law and the global environment to the concept of ethics. It stresses an individual to pick up responsibility and to obey rules set by the authority. ” … …The system of social morality could be seen through the religious aspect. …The theory of social morality relates social rules and culture with the concept of ethics.

A dogmatic set of rules sometimes causes difficulties to members of a community in adapting to a new situation. Almost all-religious belief in Malaysia forbids cheating and causing harm to others, in either mentally, physically or emotionally. It is inaccurate to cause others major inconveniences, especially for something, which are not perform and is against their will and knowledge. The people involved in the syndicate fraud above, shows lack of social morality. They had taken fully advantage of their rights and had gone against the law of authorities. They show no respect for the rules and as well make unwise decision by taking art in the crime. This had cause innocent credit card owners to bear and take fully responsibility for the debts, which they did not carry out. 1st moral principle: Non-malificence: Do not harm yourself or other people. 7th moral principle: Honesty: Do not lie, defraud, deceive or mislead. Resnik, David B. 1998. “The Ethics of Science: An Introduction”. Routledge, New York The understanding of social morality includes aspect of religious and belief. In perspective, concerning religious teachings, cheating and deception are a shameful deed that surfaces upon a decent person.

Intentionally causing harm to others in order to gain individual benefits, mislead the values of honesty, lying, fraud, or deceit are taught in religious teachings as an inexcusable wrongdoings. Religious teachings are base on purity of love and sincerity towards every individual, and fulfillment of promises to every member of society. Cheating and deception are not acceptable for the noble character of a truthful human being. 2. Had causes conflict in all factors of life We are often taught in school and the society to weigh and consider each consequences, complications and arising problems before making a decision.

In morals principles, there is a focus on us as human have to endure the responsibility threw at us by God and be the best person in the heart of all the people closest to us. This explains that responsibilities are something we are born with and they will follow us all of our lives. In the perception of an ordinary person, responsibility comprises family, career, finances and social relationships, etc. Family has been the prime factor in life since Asian has a very strong sense of family bonding. We are taught in school to be a filial child, to respect and show love to our elders, spouse and children.

We are to take care of them, provide them the best food and living as well as spend enough time with them just exactly the same way they had through. This as an inescapable responsibility every individual must recognize. Instead, the people involved in the syndicate fraud crime have showed an bad example of not analyzing the situation and outcome of their doings. They have not considered all the factors that will be affected such as their parents, spouse and children, financial debt, etc. They are obviously too concentrated and enjoy reaping their own benefits and not realizing the force of law and results of ending up in jail.

Even though those who inflicted the crime are arrested, it actually did not bring any good. There is a need to ponder the aftermath for their family, spouses, children and friends. It has costs them to accept vast responsibilities and regrets. In worst situation, weak elders might leave unattended and lack of healthy living necessities, spouse might need to carry up family responsibility alone and have to abide financial debts and living costs, etc. The damage is huge and had cause moral conflicts as of lacking comprehensive consideration such as commitment, responsibility, outcome, sequences etc.

Therefore, it is wise to reflect the guiding and teachings of morality and ethics before doing something that only causes regrets and failure. 5th moral principles: Utility: Maximize the ratio of benefits to harms for all people. Resnik, David B. 1998. “The Ethics of Science: An Introduction”. Routledge, New York 3. Had not realize the “reason of choices” applies to human Human is born an intellectual living; we are shaped unique because of our ability to comprehend every detail in a systematic and logical manner. Human often stuck in dilemma of making choices.

From a psychological perspective, it is necessary to examine individual decisions in the context of a set of needs, preferences and values they seek. As a result, decision-making often includes emotional process, which can be rational or irrational. In the context of morality value, it emphasizes philosophy of “good”, “accurate” and “wise” responsibility of an individual. The failure of making the right choices can be unreasonable, opposed to reason, sinful and morally wrong. Human should not resist but must seek the goodness in every details of life.

We are to live through meaningful and no regrets because life is short and impermanent. We have to remember, in all stages of life, every choice we choose leads a different path and fate. There is a folk saying; life is a short chapter, good morality and lives the fullest makes one special. This saying should not implement on the people involving the crime, they showed no consideration and had twisted the basis of “reason of choices”. They had failed to present rational and intelligence in their decision-making process.

As refer above, it has opposed the reason, sinful to God’s order, morally wrong and had betray their own self. They cannot expect recognition from others if they show no self-respect in life. We must bring out the best of ourselves for others to be aware of and be the proud child in the heart of parents. They had failed to make themselves a truthful person and disappointed their parents for their doings. 3rd moral principles: Autonomy: Allow rational individuals to make free and informed choices. Resnik, David B. 1998. “The Ethics of Science: An Introduction”. Routledge, New York

The moral principle quoted above stated, “Allow rational individuals to make free and informed choices. ” They had misuse their ability to comprehend and weigh the consequences of their decision. They may be repentant but the aftermath had caused them losing entirely including future, dignity, self-respect and dishonor. For I believe, being not able to present ourselves a better person, which others can trust and rely on, is a stern focus that should be reassess. 4. Against the law and Rukun Negara pledges It is a norm for us Malaysian to keep in heart of the Rukun Negara pledges.

Malaysia is our home, our country and that is more than enough of a reason to be devoted to it. Rukun Negara has been enshrined in the institution of Malaysian law. KEPERCAYAAN KEPADA TUHAN KESETIAAN KEPADA RAJA DAN NEGARA KELUHURAN PERLEMBAGAAN KEDAULATAN UNDANG-UNDANG KESOPANAN DAN KESUSILAAN From above study case, all these people related to the crime had gone against the fourth and fifth rules enlisted in Rukun Negara pledges. They apparently had not demonstrated excellent aim of responsibility, which a real Malaysian must hold onto.

The Malaysian government document on the aspirations of the Rukun Negara had stated, “These ends and these principles, acceptable to all and applicable to all, will serve as the nexus which will bind us together. ” As refer to the fourth and fifth pledges; KEDAULATAN UNDANG-UNDANG Justice is founded upon the rule of law. Every citizen is equal before the law. Fundamental liberties are guaranteed to all citizens. These include liberty of the person, equal protection of the law, freedom of religion, rights of property and protection against banishment.

The people involved in the crime had overstepped their rights as a citizen; they had violated the commandment enshrined in the institution of Malaysian Law. KESOPANAN DAN KESUSILAAN Individuals and groups shall conduct their affairs in such a manner as not to violate any of the accepted canons of behaviors, which are arrogant or offensive to the sensitivities of any other group. The people involved in the crime had conduct a shameful manners , as they had violate the laws and had perform unaccepted behaviors, which had cause inconvenience for other innocent victims. Strategies and prevention method . Opt for self-collection instead of postal mailing Nowadays, banks had realized how serious syndicate fraud, skimming etc, had caused to its business. This not only fall on the bank itself, but the consumers as well. Due to its nature relating to personal possessions and financial stats, issue regarding money has to be take-in seriously. First solution to prevent identity and personal belongings theft is to opt for self-collection; consumers can collect their credit card at their issuing bank as informed. This practice can lower down the chances of credit card swap during delivery.

When there is to choose, prevention is supposed to come first. There are cases where card was delivered to the office but the credit card was intercepted by the company mailroom and the card was never reaching to the consumers. The thing happen next is leading to fraud in some cases. 2. Issuing bank might carry out internal mailing system Banks can consider an internal mailing system, in which, the bank itself will deliver the envelope containing credit card to their consumers by several internal members to the specified address. Although this might need additional operating cost, the issuing bank is able to strike two with one.

Banks can introduce on-site direct activation method to minimize consumer’s hassle where as an important security measure; all cardholders are in any event required to call the issuing bank to activate their credit cards before transactions can be made. This actually may cause inconvenience for some individuals during working hours, etc. The current competitive market shall have banks working harder to reach their consumer’s desires in order to attract more attention from the public and to bring in new consumers to the company. 3. Stricter law and regulations

As modern technology is getting more and more complex and diversified, this has created a very favorable environment for the fraudsters. With increased competition globally and escalating cost of doing business, more traders are driven to frauds for survival. Fraudsters nowadays are more professional and creative in their doings, there is always new fraud coming in and yet syndicate crimes are becoming more and more popular. Local government agencies and authorities shall implement stricter law and rules. All countries need strict regulations to prevent fraud crime from happening.

The institution of law is able to twice up the punishment term, amount of pay, etc. Stricter rules are able to control the flow trend of fraud crimes, as example: drug trafficking, offenders will be facing mandatory death penalty. The consequences to bear is too high, therefore the possibility for Malaysian to offend “drug trafficking” is relatively low. 4. Manage employee properly to prevent fraud With the current high living cost in everyday’s life, some employees have no choice but committing fraud against their employers.

Preventing fraud is one of the most important things an employer can do in order to prevent losing money and eliminate the bad employees. Therefore, the company must be wise and sensitive to sense any misconduct of employee. Firstly, mailing company can perform work progress check-up to prevent fraud. It is to check-up on employees work by management-employee and employee-employee check-up on each person. Company can perform yearly assessment or interview for each employee. Another prevention is to be a role model for employees; management must show fair and honest conduct in their doings.

Employees will understand the “do and not do” more confidently. If there is a suspicion of fraud in company, there is a need for investigation. Either by internally or externally, routine investigations done on employees will help them stay alert with the intention to know they cannot get away with fraud because they will be caught. Another easiest way to prevent fraud in an organization is to make sure a thorough screening process for each applicant before hiring. Not only is it important for companies to pay attention to their employees, they is also a need to pay attention to contractors and suppliers.

Unfortunately, dishonesty does exist and employers have to be careful when they are dealing with outsiders. Summary The one sentence of the most interesting part is that people who did good deed were likely to live happier in life. Moral value comes from the basic goodness of human nature, and own sense of right and wrong that is universally shared among all people. In moral studies, we have learned that God gave us those finer things in life: common sense and the ability to tell right from wrong. From what had been discussed from case study above, it is obvious that we as human; – Shall appreciate the gifts of life

As one responsible person, we have an obligation to protect and take care of our own and each person around us. It is a responsibility to give the best for our family and friends. Devote them all our love and make them feel proud of our good deeds and success. – Not to be obsessed with materialism When we are to think about what we want instead or need, we are able to see how little good effort can make this world a little better for those who have so little. We have to be clear about what matters most. Life is not all about living in luxury but a comfortable and peaceful home where we spend with our loved ones. Obey the law and regulations We obey the law and those legally appointed for its enforcement for various reasons. There might be a moral obligation to obey a particular law because it is a demand for ourselves to be obedience. We recognize the system value of laws as a system that implements justice and truth. It is to our advantage to know which doings are prohibited, questionable or potentially illegal, as offending regulations will end up facing the forces of law. – It is a practice to make decision wise and rationally We are force to make choices in life, but every choices we made, leads to different paths.

We are to take and bear our own responsibility in life, which is why we have to be rational and reasonable with all the choices we decide to take. There is no point for regret if we had made an incorrect decision. We can only move on a better life but sin will still haunt us deep inside forever. We must always consider all facts and consequences before making a decision. We have to keep in mind that, we shaped our own life and future. It is a need for us to live by the guide of moral value and to be a person doing the right deeds for themselves and others. ATTACHMENT REFERENCES