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Ferdinand de Saussure: Course in General Linguistics

Ferdinand de Saussure: Course in General Linguistics

30: FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE: COURSE IN GENERAL LINGUISTICS (1913) Nature of the Linguistic Sign 1. Sign, Signified, Signifier Some people regard language, when reduced to its elements, as a naming-process only_a list of words, each corresponding to the thing that it names. For example: [pic] This conception is open to criticism at several points.

It assumes that ready-made ideas exist before words; it does not tell us whether a name is vocal or psychological in nature (arbor, for instance, can be considered from either viewpoint); finally, it lets us assume that the linking of a name and a thing is a very simple operation—an assumption that is anything but true. But this rather naive approach can bring us near the truth by showing us that the linguistic unit is a double entity, one formed by the associating of two terms. We have seen in considering the speaking-circuit that both terms involved in the linguistic sign are psychological and are united in the brain by an associative bond.

This point must be emphasized. The linguistic sign unites, not a thing and a name, but a concept and a sound-image. The latter is not the material sound, a purely physical thing, but the psychological imprint of the sound, the impression that it makes on our senses. The sound-image is sensory, and if I happen to call it “material,” it is only in that sense, and by way of opposing it to the other term of the association, the concept, which is generally more abstract. The psychological character of our sound-images becomes apparent when we observe our own speech.

Without moving our lips or tongue, we can talk to ourselves or recite mentally a selection of verse. Because we regard the words of our language as sound-images, we must avoid speaking of the “phonemes” that make up the words. This term, which suggests vocal activity, is applicable to the spoken word only, to the realization of the inner image in discourse. We can avoid that misunderstanding by speaking of the sounds and syllables of a word provided we remember that the names refer to the sound-image. The linguistic sign is then a two-sided psychological entity that can be represented by the drawing: pic] The two elements are intimately united, and each recalls the other. Whether we try to find the meaning of the Latin word arbor or the word that Latin uses to designate the concept “tree,” it is clear that only the associations sanctioned by that language appear to us to conform to reality, and we disregard whatever others might be imagined. Our definition of the linguistic sign poses an important question of terminology. I call the combination of a concept and a sound-image a sign, but in current usage the term generally designates only a sound-image, a word, for example ( arbor, etc. ).

One tends to forget that arbor is called a sign only because it carries the concept “tree,” with the result that the idea of the sensory part implies the idea of the whole. [pic] Ambiguity would disappear if the three notions involved here were designated by three names, each suggesting and opposing the others. I propose to retain the word sign [ signe ] to designate the whole and to replace concept and sound-image respectively by signified [ signifie ] and signifier [ signifiant ]; the last two terms have the advantage of indicating the opposition that separates them from each other and from the whole of which they are parts.

As regards sign, if I am satisfied with it, this is simply because I do not know of any word to replace it, the ordinary language suggesting no other. The linguistic sign, as defined, has two primordial characteristics. In enunciating them I am also positing the basic principles of any study of this type. 2. Principle I: The Arbitrary Nature of the Sign The bond between the signifier and the signified is arbitrary. Since I mean by sign the whole that results from the associating of the signifier with the signified, I can simply say: the linguistic sign is arbitrary.

The idea of “sister” is not linked by any inner relationship to the succession of sounds s-o-r which serves as its signifier in French; that it could be represented equally by just any other sequence is proved by differences among languages and by the very existence of different languages: the signified “ox” has as its signifier b-o-f >on one side of the border and o-k-s (Ochs) on the other. No one disputes the principle of the arbitrary nature of the sign, but it is often easier to discover a truth than to assign to it its proper place.

Principle I dominates all the linguistics of language; its consequences are numberless. It is true that not all of them are equally obvious at first glance; only after many detours does one discover them, and with them the primordial importance of the principle. One remark in passing: when semiology becomes organized as a science, the question will arise whether or not it properly includes modes of expression based on completely natural signs, such as pantomime.

Supposing that the new science welcomes them, its main concern will still be the whole group of systems grounded on the arbitrariness of the sign. In fact, every means of expression used in society is based, in principle, on collective behavior or—what amounts to the same thing—on convention. Polite formulas, for instance, though often imbued with a certain natural expressiveness (as in the case of a Chinese who greets his emperor by bowing down to the ground nine times), are nonetheless fixed by rule; it is this rule and not the intrinsic value of the gestures that obliges one to use them.

Signs that are wholly arbitrary realize better than the others the ideal of the semiological process; that is why language, the most complex and universal of all systems of expression, is also the most characteristic; in this sense linguistics can become the master-pattern for all branches of semiology although language is only one particular semiological system. The word symbol has been used to designate the linguistic sign, or more specifically, what is here called the signifier.

Principle I in particular weighs against the use of this term. One characteristic of the symbol is that it is never wholly arbitrary; it is not empty, for there is the rudiment of a natural bond between the signifier and the signified. The symbol of justice, a pair of scales, could not be replaced by just any other symbol, such as a chariot. The word arbitrary also calls for comment.

The term should not imply that the choice of the signifier is left entirely to the speaker (we shall see below that the individual does not have the power to change a sign in any way once it has become established in the linguistic community); I mean that it is unmotivated, i. e. arbitrary in that it actually has no natural connection with the signified. In concluding let us consider two objections that might be raised to the establishment of Principle I: 1) Onomatopoeia might be used to prove that the choice of the signifier is not always arbitrary.

But onomatopoeic formations are never organic elements of a linguistic system. Besides, their number is much smaller than is generally supposed. Words like French fouet ‘whip’ or glas ‘knell’ may strike certain ears with suggestive sonority, but to see that they have not always had this property we need only examine their Latin forms ( fouet is derived from fagus ‘beech-tree,’ glas from classicum ‘sound of a trumpet’). The quality of their present sounds, or rather the quality that is attributed to them, is a fortuitous result of phonetic evolution.

As for authentic onomatopoeic words (e. g. , glug-glug, tick-tock, etc. ), not only are they limited in number, but also they are chosen somewhat arbitrarily, for they are only approximate and more or less conventional imitations of certain sounds (cf. English bow-bow and French ouaoua ). In addition, once these words have been introduced into the language, they are to a certain extent subjected to the same evolution_phonetic, morphological, etc. _that other words undergo (cf. igeon, ultimately from Vulgar Latin pipio, derived in turn from an onomatopoeic formation): obvious proof that they lose something of their original character in order to assume that of the linguistic sign in general, which is unmotivated. 2) Interjections, closely related to onomatopoeia, can be attacked on the same grounds and come no closer to refuting our thesis. One is tempted to see in them spontaneous expressions of reality dictated, so to speak, by natural forces. But for most interjections we can show that there is no fixed bond between their signified and their signifier.

We need only compare two languages on this point to see how much such expressions differ from one language to the next (e. g. the English equivalent of French aie! is ouch! ). We know, moreover, that many interjections were once words with specific meanings (cf. French diable! ‘darn! ‘ mordieu! ‘golly! ‘ from mort Dieu ‘God’s death,’ etc. ). Onomatopoeic formations and interjections are of secondary importance, and their symbolic origin is in part open to dispute. 3. Principle II: The Linear Nature of the Signifier

The signifier, being auditory, is unfolded solely in time from which it gets the following characteristics: (a) it represents a span, and (b) the span is measurable in a single dimension; it is a line. While Principle II is obvious, apparently linguists have always neglected to state it, doubtless because they found it too simple; nevertheless, it is fundamental, and its consequences are incalculable. Its importance equals that of Principle I; the whole mechanism of language depends upon it. In contrast to visual signifiers (nautical signals, etc. which can offer simultaneous groupings in several dimensions, auditory signifiers have at their command only the dimension of time. Their elements are presented in succession; they form a chain. This feature becomes readily apparent when they are represented in writing and the spatial line of graphic marks is substituted for succession in time. Sometimes the linear nature of the signifier is not obvious. When I accent a syllable, for instance, it seems that I am concentrating more than one significant element on the same point. But this is an illusion; the syllable and its accent constitute only one phonational act.

There is no duality within the act but only different oppositions to what precedes and what follows. * * * Linguistic Value 1. Language as Organized Thought Coupled with Sound To prove that language is only a system of pure values, it is enough to consider the two elements involved in its functioning: ideas and sounds. Psychologically our thought—apart from its expression in words—is only a shapeless and indistinct mass. Philosophers and linguists have always agreed in recognizing that without the help of signs we would be unable to ake a clear-cut, consistent distinction between two ideas. Without language, thought is a vague, uncharted nebula. There are no pre-existing ideas, and nothing is distinct before the appearance of language. Against the floating realm of thought, would sounds by themselves yield predelimited entities? No more so than ideas. Phonic substance is neither more fixed nor more rigid than thought; it is not a mold into which thought must of necessity fit but a plastic substance divided in turn into distinct parts to furnish the signifiers needed by thought.

The linguistic fact can therefore be pictured in its totality_i. e. language_as a series of contiguous subdivisions marked off on both the indefinite plane of jumbled ideas ( A ) and the equally vague plane of sounds ( B ). The following diagram gives a rough idea of it: [pic] The characteristic role of language with respect to thought is not to create a material phonic means for expressing ideas but to serve as a link between thought and sound, under conditions that of necessity bring about the reciprocal delimitations of units.

Thought, chaotic by nature, has to become ordered in the process of its decomposition. Neither are thoughts given material form nor are sounds transformed into mental entities; the somewhat mysterious fact is rather that “thought-sound” implies division, and that language works out its units while taking shape between two shapeless masses. Visualize the air in contact with a sheet of water; if the atmospheric pressure changes, the surface of the water will be broken up into a series of divisions, waves; the waves resemble the union or coupling of thought with phonic substance.

Language might be called the domain of articulations, using the word as it was defined earlier. Each linguistic term is a member, an articulus in which an idea is fixed in a sound and a sound becomes the sign of an idea. Language can also be compared with a sheet of paper: thought is the front and the sound the back; one cannot cut the front without cutting the back at the same time; likewise in language, one can neither divide sound from thought nor thought from sound; the division could be accomplished only abstractedly, and the result would be either pure psychology or pure phonology.

Linguistics then works in the borderland where the elements of sound and thought combine; their combination produces a form, not a substance. These views give a better understanding of what was said before about the arbitrariness of signs. Not only are the two domains that are linked by the linguistic fact shapeless and confused, but the choice of a given slice of sound to name a given idea is completely arbitrary. If this were not true, the notion of value would be compromised, for it would include an externally imposed element.

But actually values remain entirely relative, and that is why the bond between the sound and the idea is radically arbitrary. The arbitrary nature of the sign explains in turn why the social fact alone can create a linguistic system. The community is necessary if values that owe their existence solely to usage and general acceptance are to be set up; by himself the individual is incapable of fixing a single value. In addition, the idea of value, as defined, shows that to consider a term as simply the union of a certain sound with a certain concept is grossly misleading.

To define it in this way would isolate the term from its system; it would mean assuming that one can start from the terms and construct the system by adding them together when, on the contrary, it is from the interdependent whole that one must start and through analysis obtain its elements. To develop this thesis, we shall study value successively from the viewpoint of the signified or concept, the signifier, and the complete sign. Being unable to seize the concrete entities or units of language directly, we shall work with words.

While the word does not conform exactly to the definition of the linguistic unit, it at least bears a rough resemblance to the unit and has the advantage of being concrete; consequently, we shall use words as specimens equivalent to real terms in a synchronic system, and the principles that we evolve with respect to words will be valid for entities in general. 2. Linguistic Value from a Conceptual Viewpoint When we speak of the value of a word, we generally think first of its property of standing for an idea, and this is in fact one side of linguistic value. Butif this is true, how does value differ from signification?

Might the two words be synonyms? I think not, although it is easy to confuse them, since the confusion results not so much from their similarity as from the subtlety of the distinction that they mark. From a conceptual viewpoint, value is doubtless one element in signification, and it is difficult to see how signification can be dependent upon value and still be distinct from it. But we must clear up the issue or risk reducing language to a simple naming-process. Let us first take signification as it is generally understood and as it was pictured previously.

As the arrows in the drawing show, it is only the counterpart of the sound-image. Everything that occurs concerns only the sound-image and the concept when we look upon the word as independent and self-contained. [pic] But here is the paradox: on the one hand the concept seems to be the counterpart of the sound-image, and on the other hand the sign itself is in turn the counterpart of the other signs of language. Language is a system of interdependent terms in which the value of each term results solely from the simultaneous presence of the others, as in the diagram: pic] How, then, can value be confused with signification, i. e. the counterpart of the sound-image? It seems impossible to liken the relations represented here by horizontal arrows to those represented above by vertical arrows. Putting it another way_and again taking up the example of the sheet of paper that is cut in two_it is clear that the observable relation between the different pieces A, B, C, D, etc. is distinct from the relation between the front and back of the same piece as in A/A’, B/B’, etc.

To resolve the issue, let us observe from the outset that even outside language all values are apparently governed by the same paradoxical principle. They are always composed: (1) of a dissimilar thing that can be exchanged for the thing of which the value is to be determined; and (2) of similar things that can be compared with the thing of which the value is to be determined. Both factors are necessary for the existence of a value. To determine what a five-franc piece is worth one must therefore know: (1) that it can be exchanged for a fixed quantity of a different thing, e. . bread; and (2) that it can be compared with a similar value of the same system, e. g. a one-franc piece, or with coins of another system (a dollar, etc. ). In the same way a word can be exchanged for something dissimilar, an idea; besides, it can be compared with something of the same nature, another word. Its value is therefore not fixed so long as one simply states that it can be “exchanged” for a given concept, i. e. that it has this or that signification: one must also compare it with similar values, with other words that stand in opposition to it.

Its content is really fixed only by the concurrence of everything that exists outside it. Being part of a system, it is endowed not only with a signification but also and especially with a value, and this is something quite different. A few examples will show clearly that this is true. Modern French mouton can have the same signification as English sheep but not the same value, and this for several reasons, particularly because in speaking of a piece of meat ready to be served on the table, English uses mutton and not sheep.

The difference in value between sheep and mouton is due to the fact that sheep has beside it a second term while the French word does not. Within the same language, all words used to express related ideas limit each other reciprocally; synonyms like French redouter ‘dread’ craindre ‘fear,’ and avoir peur ‘be afraid’ have value only through their opposition: if redouter did not exist, all its content would go to its competitors. Conversely, some words are enriched through contact with others: e. . the new element introduced in decrepit (un vieillard decrepit ) results from the coexistence of decrepi (un mur decrepi ). The value of just any term is accordingly determined by its environment; it is impossible to fix even the value of the word signifying “sun” without first considering its surroundings: in some languages it is not possible to say “sit in the sun. ” Everything said about words applies to any term of language, e. g. to grammatical entities.

The value of a French plural does not coincide with that of a Sanskrit plural even though their signification is usually identical; Sanskrit has three numbers instead of two ( my eyes, my ears, my arms, my legs, etc. are dual); it would be wrong to attribute the same value to the plural in Sanskrit and in French; its value clearly depends on what is outside and around it. If words stood for pre-existing concepts, they would all have exact equivalents in meaning from one language to the next; but this is not true.

French uses louer ( une maison ) ‘let (a house)’ indifferently to mean both “pay for” and “receive payment for,” whereas German uses two words, mieten and vermieten; there is obviously no exact correspondence of values. The German verbs schatzen and urteilen share a number of significations, but that correspondence does not hold at several points. Inflection offers some particularly striking examples. Distinctions of time, which are so familiar to us, are unknown in certain languages. Hebrew does not recognize even the fundamental distinctions between the past, present, and future.

Proto-Germanic has no special form for the future; to say that the future is expressed by the present is wrong, for the value of the present is not the same in Germanic as in languages that have a future along with the present. The Slavic languages regularly single out two aspects of the verb: the perfective represents action as a point, complete in its totality; the imperfective represents it as taking place, and on the line of time. The categories are difficult for a Frenchman to understand, for they are unknown in French; if they were predetermined, this would not be true.

Instead of pre-existing ideas then, we find in all the foregoing examples values emanating from the system. When they are said to correspond to concepts, it is understood that the concepts are purely differential and defined not by their positive content but negatively by their relations with the other terms of the system. Their most precise characteristic is in being what the others are not. Now the real interpretation of the diagram of the signal becomes apparent. Thus [pic] eans that in French the concept “to judge” is linked to the sound-image juger; in short, it symbolizes signification. But it is quite clear that initially the concept is nothing, that is only a value determined by its relations with other similar values, and that without them the signification would not exist. If I state simply that a word signifies something when I have in mind the associating of a sound-image with a concept, I am making a statement that may suggest what actually happens, but by no means am I expressing the linguistic fact in its essence and fullness. . Linguistic Value from a Material Viewpoint The conceptual side of value is made up solely of relations and differences with respect to the other terms of language, and the same can be said of its material side. The important thing in the word is not the sound alone but the phonic differences that make it possible to distinguish this word from all others, for differences carry signification. This may seem surprising, but how indeed could the reverse be possible?

Since one vocal image is no better suited than the next for what it is commissioned to express, it is evident, even a priori, that a segment of language can never in the final analysis be based on anything except its noncoincidence with the rest. Arbitrary and differential are two correlative qualities. The alteration of linguistic signs clearly illustrates this. It is precisely because the terms a and b as such are radically incapable of reaching the level of consciousness_one is always conscious of only the a/b difference—that each term is free to change according to laws that are unrelated to its signifying function.

No positive sign characterizes the genitive plural in Czech zen ; still the two forms zena: zen function as well as the earlier forms zena: zenb; zen has value only because it is different. Here is another example that shows even more clearly the systematic role of phonic differences: in Greek, ephen is an imperfect and esten an aorist although both words are formed in the same way; the first belongs to the system of the present indicative of phemi ‘I say,’ whereas there is no present * stemi now it is precisely the relation phemi: ephen that corresponds to the relation between the present and the imperfect (cf. eiknumi: edeiknun, etc. ). Signs function, then, not through their intrinsic value but through their relative position. In addition, it is impossible for sound alone, a material element, to belong to language. It is only a secondary thing, substance to be put to use. All our conventional values have the characteristic of not being confused with the tangible element which supports them. For instance, it is not the metal in a piece of money that fixes its value. A coin nominally worth five francs may contain less than half its worth of silver.

Its value will vary according to the amount stamped upon it and according to its use inside or outside a political boundary. This is even more true of the linguistic signifier, which is not phonic but incorporeal—constituted not by its material substance but by the differences that separate its sound-image from all others. The foregoing principle is so basic that it applies to all the material elements of language, including phonemes. Every language forms its words on the basis of a system of sonorous elements, each element being a clearly delimited unit and one of a fixed number of units.

Phonemes are characterized not, as one might think, by their own positive quality but simply by the fact that they are distinct. Phonemes are above all else opposing, relative, and negative entities. Proof of this is the latitude that speakers have between points of convergence in the pronunciation of distinct sounds. In French, for instance, general use of a dorsal r does not prevent many speakers from using a tongue-tip trill; language is not in the least disturbed by it; language requires only that the sound be different and not, as one might imagine, that it have an invariable quality.

I can even pronounce the French r like German ch in Bach, doch, etc. , but in German I could not use r instead of ch, for German gives recognition to both elements and must keep them apart. Similarly, in Russian there is no latitude for t in the direction of t’ (palatalized t ), for the result would be the confusing of two sounds differentiated by the language (cf. govorit’ ‘speak’ and goverit ‘he speaks’), but more freedom may be taken with respect to th (aspirated t ) since this sound does not figure in the Russian system of phonemes.

Since an identical state of affairs is observable in writing, another system of signs, we shall use writing to draw some comparisons that will clarify the whole issue. In fact: 1) The signs used in writing are arbitrary; there is no connection, for example, between the letter t and the sound that it designates. 2) The value of letters is purely negative and differential. The same person can write t, for instance, in different ways: The only requirement is that the sign for t not be confused in his script with the signs used for l, d, etc. ) Values in writing function only through reciprocal opposition within a fixed system that consists of a set number of letters. This third characteristic, though not identical to the second, is closely related to it, for both depend on the first. Since the graphic sign is arbitrary, its form matters little or rather matters only within the limitations imposed by the system. 4) The means by which the sign is produced is completely unimportant, for it does not affect the system (this also follows from characteristic 1).

Whether I make the letters in white or black, raised or engraved, with pen or chisel—all this is of no importance with respect to their signification. 4. The Sign Considered in Its Totality Everything that has been said up to this point boils down to this: in language there are only differences. Even more important: a difference generally implies positive terms between which the difference is set up; but in language there are only differences without positive terms.

Whether we take the signified or the signifier, language has neither idea nor sounds that existed before the linguistic system, but only conceptual and phonic differences that have issued from the system. The idea or phonic substance that a sign contains is of less importance than the other signs that surround it. Proof of this is that the value of a term may be modified without either its meaning or its sound being affected, solely because a neighboring term has been modified.

But the statement that everything in language is negative is true only if the signified and the signifier are considered separately; when we consider the sign in its totality, we have something that is positive in its own class. A linguistic system is a series of differences of sound combined with a series of differences of ideas; but the pairing of a certain number of acoustical signs with as many cuts made from the mass of thought engenders a system of values; and this system serves as the effective link between the phonic and psychological elements within each sign.

Although both the signified and the signifier are purely differential and negative when considered separately, their combination is a positive fact; it is even the sole type of facts that language has, for maintaining the parallelism between the two classes of differences is the distinctive function of the linguistic institution. Certain diachronic facts are typical in this respect. Take the countless instances where alteration of the signifier occasions a conceptual change and where it is obvious that the sum of the ideas distinguished corresponds in principle to the sum of the distinctive signs.

When two words are confused through phonetic alteration (e. g. French decrepit from decrepitus and decrepi from crispus ), the ideas that they express will also tend to become confused if only they have something in common. Or a word may have different forms (cf. chaise ‘chair’ and chaire ‘desk’). Any nascent difference will tend invariably to become significant but without always succeeding or being successful on the first trial.

Conversely, any conceptual difference perceived by the mind seeks to find expression through a distinct signifier, and two ideas that are no longer distinct in the mind tend to merge into the same signifier. When we compare signs_positive terms_with each other, we can no longer speak of difference; the expression would not be fitting, for it applies only to the comparing of two sound-images, e. g. father and mother, or two ideas, e. g. the idea “father” and the idea “mother”; two signs, each having a signified and signifier, are not different but only distinct. Between them there is only opposition.

The entire mechanism of language, with which we shall be concerned later, is based on oppositions of this kind and on the phonic and conceptual differences that they imply. What is true of value is true also of the unit. A unit is a segment of the spoken chain that corresponds to a certain concept; both are by nature purely differential. Applied to units, the principle of differentiation can be stated in this way: the characteristics of the unit blend with the unit itself. In language, as in any semiological system, whatever distinguishes one sign from the others constitutes it.

Difference makes character just as it makes value and the unit. Another rather paradoxical consequence of the same principle is this: in the last analysis what is commonly referred to as a “grammatical fact” fits the definition of the unit, for it always expresses an opposition of terms; it differs only in that the opposition is particularly significant (e. g. the formation of German plurals of the type Nacht: Nachte ). Each term present in the grammatical fact (the singular without umlaut or final e in opposition to the plural with umlaut and – e ) consists of the interplay of a number of oppositions within the system.

When isolated, neither Nacht nor Nachte is anything: thus everything is opposition. Putting it another way, the Nacht: Nachte relation can be expressed by an algebraic formula a/b in which a and b are not simple terms but result from a set of relations. Language, in a manner of speaking, is a type of algebra consisting solely of complex terms. Some of its oppositions are more significant than others; but units and grammatical facts are only different names for designating diverse aspects of the same general fact: the functioning of linguistic oppositions.

This statement is so true that we might very well approach the problem of units by starting from grammatical facts. Taking an opposition like Nacht: Nachte, we might ask what are the units involved in it. Are they only the two words, the whole series of similar words, a and a, or all singulars and plurals, etc.? Units and grammatical facts would not be confused if linguistic signs were made up of something besides differences. But language being what it is, we shall find nothing simple in it regardless of our approach; everywhere and always there is the same complex equilibrium of terms that mutually condition each other.

Putting it another way, language is a form and not a substance. This truth could not be overstressed, for all the mistakes in our terminology, all our incorrect ways of naming things that pertain to language, stem from the involuntary supposition that the linguistic phenomenon must have substance. SYNTAGMATIC AND ASSOCIATIVE RELATIONS 1. Definitions In a language-state everything is based on relations. How do they function? Relations and differences between linguistic terms fall into two distinct groups, each of which generates a certain class of values.

The opposition between the two classes gives a better understanding of the nature of each class. They correspond to two forms of our mental activity, both indispensable to the life of language. In discourse, on the one hand, words acquire relations based on the linear nature of language because they are chained together. This rules out the possibility of pronouncing two elements simultaneously. The elements are arranged in sequence on the chain of speaking. Combinations supported by linearity are syntagms. The syntagm is always composed of two or more consecutive units (e. . French re-lire ‘re-read,’ contre tous ‘against everyone,’ la vie humaine ‘human life,’ Dieu est bon ‘God is good,’ s’il fait beau temps, nous sortirons ‘if the weather is nice, we’ll go out,’ etc. ). In the syntagm a term acquires its value only because it stands in opposition to everything that precedes or follows it, or to both. Outside discourse, on the other hand, words acquire relations of a different kind. Those that have something in common are associated in the memory, resulting in groups marked by diverse relations.

For instance, the French word enseignement ‘teaching’ will unconsciously call to mind a host of other words ( enseigner ‘teach,’ renseigner ‘acquaint,’ etc. ; or armement ‘armament,’ changement ‘amendment,’ etc. ; or education ‘education,’ apprentissage ‘apprenticeship,’ etc. ). All those words are related in some way. We see that the co-ordinations formed outside discourse differ strikingly from those formed inside discourse. Those formed outside discourse are not supported by linearity. Their seat is in the brain; they are a part of the inner storehouse that makes up the language of each speaker.

They are associative relations. The syntagmatic relation is in praesentia. It is based on two or more terms that occur in an effective series. Against this, the associative relation unites terms in absentia in a potential mnemonic series. From the associative and syntagmatic viewpoint a linguistic unit is like a fixed part of a building, e. g. a column. On the one hand, the column has a certain relation to the architrave that it supports; the arrangement of the two units in space suggests the syntagmatic relation.

On the other hand, if the column is Doric, it suggests a mental comparison of this style with others (Ionic, Corinthian, etc. ) although none of these elements is present in space: the relation is associative. Each of the two classes of co-ordination calls for some specific remarks. 2. Syntagmatic Relations The examples have already indicated that the notion of syntagm applies not only to words but to groups of words, to complex units of all lengths and types (compounds, derivatives, phrases, whole sentences). It is not enough to consider the relation that ties together the different parts of syntagms (e. . French contre ‘against’ and tous ‘everyone’ in contre tous, contre and maitre ‘master’ in contremaitre ‘foreman’), one must also bear in mind the relation that links the whole to its parts (e. g. contre tous in opposition on the one hand to contre and on the other tous, or contremaitre in opposition to contre and maitre ). An objection might be raised at this point. The sentence is the ideal type of syntagm. But it belongs to speaking, not to language. Does it not follow that the syntagm belongs to speaking? I do not think so.

Speaking is characterized by freedom of combinations; one must therefore ask whether or not all syntagms are equally free. It is obvious from the first that many expressions belong to language. These are the pat phrases in which any change is prohibited by usage, even if we can single out their meaningful elements (cf. a quoi bon? ‘what’s the use? ‘ allons donc! ‘nonsense! ‘). The same is true, though to a lesser degree, of expressions like prendre la mouche ‘take offense easily,’ forcer la main a quelqu’un ‘force someone’s hand,’ rompre une lance ‘break a lance,’ or even avoir mal ( a la tete, etc. ) ‘have (a headache, etc. ,’ a force de ( soins, etc. ) ‘by dint of (care, etc. ),’ que vous en semble? ‘how do you feel about it? ‘ pas n’est besoin de … ‘there’s no need for… ,’ etc. , which are characterized by peculiarities of signification or syntax. These idiomatic twists cannot be improvised; they are furnished by tradition. There are also words which, while lending themselves perfectly to analysis, are characterized by some morphological anomaly that is kept solely by dint of usage (cf. difficulte ‘difficulty’ beside facilite ‘facility,’ etc. , and mourrai ‘[I] shall die’ beside dormirai ‘[I] shall sleep’). There are further proofs.

To language rather than to speaking belong the syntagmatic types that are built upon regular forms. Indeed, since there is nothing abstract in language, the types exist only if language has registered a sufficient number of specimens. When a word like indecorable arises in speaking, its appearance supposes a fixed type, and this type is in turn possible only through remembrance of a sufficient number of similar words belonging to language ( impardonable ‘unpardonable,’ intolerable ‘intolerable,’ infatigable ‘indefatigable,’ etc. ). Exactly the same is true of sentences and groups of words built upon regular patterns.

Combinations like la terre tourne ‘the world turns,’ que vous dit-il? ‘what does he say to you? ‘ etc. correspond to general types that are in turn supported in the language by correct remembrances. But we must realize that in the syntagm there is no clear-cut boundary between the language fact, which is a sign of collective usage, and the fact that belongs to speaking and depends on individual freedom. In a great number of instances it is hard to class a combination of units because both forces have combined in producing it, and they have combined in indeterminable proportions. . Associative Relations Mental association creates other groups besides those based on the comparing of terms that have something in common; through its grasp of the nature of the relations that bind the terms together, the mind creates as many associative series as there are diverse relations. For instance, in enseignement ‘teaching,’ enseigner ‘teach,’ enseignons ‘(we) teach,’ etc. , one element, the radical, is common to every term; the same word may occur in a different series formed around another common element, the suffix (cf. enseignement, armement, changement, etc. ; or the association may spring from the analogy of the concepts signified ( enseignement, instruction, apprentissage, education, etc. ); or again, simply from the similarity of the sound-images (e. g. enseignement and justement ‘precisely’). Thus there is at times a double similarity of meaning and form, at times similarity only of form or of meaning. A word can always evoke everything that can be associated with it in one way or another. Whereas a syntagm immediately suggests an order of succession and a fixed number of elements, terms in an associative family occur neither in fixed numbers nor in a definite order.

If we associate painful, delightful, frightful, etc. we are unable to predict the number of words that the memory will suggest or the order in which they will appear. A particular word is like the center of a constellation; it is the point of convergence of an indefinite number of co-ordinated terms. But of the two characteristics of the associative series—indeterminate order and indefinite numbe—only the first can always be verified; the second may fail to meet the test. This happens in the case of inflectional paradigms, which are typical of associative groupings.

Latin dominus, domini, domino, etc. is obviously an associative group formed around a common element, the noun theme domin-, but the series [pic] is not indefinite as in the case of enseignement, changement, etc. ; the number of cases is definite. Against this, the words have no fixed order of succession, and it is by a purely arbitrary act that the grammarian groups them in one way rather than in another; in the mind of speakers the nominative case is by no means the first one in the declension, and the order in which terms are called depends on circumstances.