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C Programming for Beginers

C Programming for Beginers

Cprogramming. com: How to Get Started with C++ Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes Getting Started with C/C++ Exactly How to Get Started with C/C++ Today Okay, let’s cut to the chase–you want to learn to program in C/C++ and you want to know exactly what you should do, right now. ? Go here and follow our super-simple instructions on setting up a C/C++ compiler (A compiler will let you run the code you write) ? Start our C++ Tutorial ( If you want to learn C, go here. Not sure? I suggest C++. ) ?

If you’re feeling overwhelmed, read The 5 Most Common Problems New Programmers Face–And How You Can Solve Them Once you’ve started that, I recommend ? Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tips and Tricks Jobs Tools What do I need? Compilers Editors Debuggers ? ? Resources Source Code Syntax Reference Snippets Links Directory Book Reviews Function Lookup ? ? Checking out our From C++ Beginner to C++ Expert book series. Reading 5 Ways to Learn Programming Faster Working through practice programming problems Quizzing yourself Keep up with the latest information by subscribing to cprogramming. om by Email or RSS Want more details, read the rest of this page. Questions What is C, What is C++, and What is the Difference? C is a programming language originally developed for developing the http://www. cprogramming. com/begin. html (1 of 5) [05-11-2011 09:26:54] Cprogramming. com: How to Get Started with C++ Programming FAQ Message Board Ask an Expert Email About Us Unix operating system. It is a low-level and powerful language, but it lacks many modern and useful constructs. C++ is a newer language, based on C, that adds many more modern programming language features that make it easier to program than C.

Basically, C++ maintains all aspects of the C language, while providing new features to programmers that make it easier to write useful and sophisticated programs. For example, C++ makes it easier to manage memory and adds several features to allow “object-oriented” programming and “generic” programming. Basically, it makes it easier for programmers to stop thinking about the nitty-gritty details of how the machine works and think about the problems they are trying to solve. So, what is C++ used for? C++ is a powerful general-purpose programming language. It can be used to create small programs or large applications.

It can be used to make CGI scripts or console-only DOS programs. C++ allows you to create programs to do almost anything you need to do. The creator of C++, Bjarne Stroustrup, has put together a partial list of applications written in C++. How do you learn C++? No special knowledge is needed to learn C++, and if you are an independent learner, you can probably learn C++ from online tutorials or from books. There are plenty of free tutorials online, including Cprogramming. com’s C++ tutorial – one which requires no prior programming experience. You can also pick out programming books from our recommendations.

While reading a tutorial or a book, it is often helpful to type – not copy and paste (even if you can! ) – the code into the compiler and run it. Typing it yourself will help you to get used to the typical typing errors that cause problems and it will force you to pay attention to the details of programming syntax. Typing your program will also familiarize you with the general structure of programs and with the use of common commands. After running an example program – and after making certain that you understand how it works – you should experiment with it: play with the program and test your own ideas.

By seeing which modifications cause problems and which sections of the code are most important to the function of the program, you should learn quite a bit about programming. Try our C++ Beginner to C++ Expert recommended book series, a sixbook set designed to get you maximal information and help take you from beginner to C++ master. http://www. cprogramming. com/begin. html (2 of 5) [05-11-2011 09:26:54] Cprogramming. com: How to Get Started with C++ You may also want to read about The 5 Most Common Problems New Programmers Face–And How You Can Solve Them.

What do I need to start programming in C or C ++? In order to make usable programs in C or C++, you will need a compiler. A compiler converts source code – the actual instructions typed by the programmer – into an executable file. Numerous compilers are available for C and C++. Can you help me set up a compiler? Absolutely! For beginners, Code::Blocks with MinGW is our recommended free and easy-to-use Windows compiler. For OS X, I recommend Apple XCode, and for Linux, g++. All of these links will help you get up and running and ready to start programming.

Do I need to know C to learn C++? No. C++ is a superset of C; (almost) anything you can do in C, you can do in C++. If you already know C, you will easily adapt to the object-oriented features of C++. If you don’t know C, you will have to learn the syntax of C-style languages while learning C++, but you shouldn’t have any conceptual difficulties. What’s the point of learning to program? What can I get out of it? Ah, a skeptic! You can get a lot of things out of programming. For one thing, it’s just plain fun. You can read my opinion on the matter here: Why Learn to Program?

I want to make games in C++, what should I do? It may be a challenging road, but it is doable. This article has more information: so you want to be a game Programmer? When you’ve learned a bit of C++, don’t miss Same Game – a Simple Game from Start to Finish which will teach you to create a game, starting from nothing and ending in a fully playable game. What does it take to learn to be a programmer? http://www. cprogramming. com/begin. html (3 of 5) [05-11-2011 09:26:54] Cprogramming. com: How to Get Started with C++ Great question! Here’s an article about what it takes to be a programmer!

Do I need to know math to be a programmer? No! At least, not too much. Most of programming is about design and logical reasoning, not about being able to quickly perform arithmetic, or deeply understanding algebra or calculus. The carryover between math and programming are primarily around logical reasoning and precise thinking. Only if you want to program advanced 3D graphics engines, or do other specialized numerical programming will you need mathematical skill. How should I think about Program Design? Try Thinking about Programming – A Beginner’s Guide Help, my program doesn’t work!

Take a look at a list of common programming mistakes, send us an email or, if you’re really stuck, join our message board or ask an expert! Where can I learn more about the history of computer science? Try this article on computer science. Why do I want to learn C Try this article on why learn C. Join our mailing list to keep up with the latest news and updates about Cprogramming. com! Name Email Join Mailing List http://www. cprogramming. com/begin. html (4 of 5) [05-11-2011 09:26:54] Cprogramming. com: How to Get Started with C++ —-Interested in advertising with us? Please read our privacy policy.

Copyright © 1997-2005 Cprogramming. com. All rights reserved. http://www. cprogramming. com/begin. html (5 of 5) [05-11-2011 09:26:54] C programming. com – Learn C and C++ Programming Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes C Programming and C++ Programming – Cprogramming. com Welcome! Cprogramming. com is your source for everything C and C++! If you’re new to the language, just head over to Getting Started with C or C+ + for a three-step guide to getting started with C or C++. Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tips and Tricks Jobs Popular Tutorials ? ? ?

Tools What do I need? Compilers Editors Debuggers ? ? ? ? Getting Started with C or C++ Setting Up Code::Blocks and the MINGW Compiler on Windows A dead-simple guide to getting the tools you need to start programming From C++ Beginner to C++ Expert Our suggested C++ books C++ Made Easy and C Made Easy our beginner-friendly C and C++ language tutorials with lots of examples 5 Ways to Learn Programming Faster What is C++11? Coverage of the latest C++ standard Same Game – A Simple Game from Start to Finish A series of articles that will teach you exactly how to create a game, starting at the very beginning

Resources Source Code Syntax Reference Snippets Links Directory Book Reviews Function Lookup Find out what books other programmers recommend by looking at the most recommended books for C++ programmming or C programming by the experts at our active message board. Need immediate programming help? Latest additions ? ? A Gentle Introduction to C++ IO Streams (October 10, 2011) Generalized Constant Expressions in C++11 (September 26, 2011) http://www. cprogramming. com/ (1 of 4) [05-11-2011 09:27:21] C programming. com – Learn C and C++ Programming

Questions Programming FAQ Message Board Ask an Expert Email About Us ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Range-Based for Loops in C++11 (September 11, 2011) GDB by Example (September 7, 2011) Lambda Functions in C++11 – the definitive guide (August 28, 2011) Auto, Decltype and return values after functions in C++11 (August 20, 2011) What is C++11? (August 14, 2011) Learn about Printf Format Strings (August 10, 2011) MeeGo Gaining Momentum (August 4, 2011) What’s the difference between declaring and defining something in C and C++? (August 1, 2011) Bookmark cprogramming. com and subscribe to cprogramming. om by Email to get all the latest C and C++ tutorials and updates. Learn C and C++ Getting Started with C++ Get answers to questions about C ++ programming basics and suggestions on learning C++. From C++ Beginner to C++ Expert A series of books that takes you from knowing nothing about programming to a C+ + expert C and C++ Tutorials Both C and C++ programming language tutorials, Standard Template Library tutorials, OpenGL programming and graphics tutorials, AI, data structures and algorithms tutorials. Articles Read articles written about C, C++, AI, and other programming and computer science topics.

Quiz Take either the 50 question C++ programming language/computer science megaquiz or a series of smaller quizzes on different topics like memory allocation and templates. C++ Challenges C++ Programming challenges — attempt to write these programs, either by filling in a prewritten framework or by writing your own program from scratch. Programmer’s Tools What do I need? From a powerful text editor, to a good compiler, to a feature-rich debugger, having the right tools makes a good programmer great. Compilers Which compiler is right for you? Compiler information and reviews. Editors What’s a text editor, why do you need one, and ttp://www. cprogramming. com/ (2 of 4) [05-11-2011 09:27:21] C programming. com – Learn C and C++ Programming which should you choose? Debugging in C and C++ Tutorials on using debugging techniques and and advice on which debugger to choose. C and C++ Resources Programming Links Directory A directory of Programming Resources Source Code Source code to learn from, or to incorporate into your own programs. C and C++ Code Snippets Incomplete programs that fulfill a particular task well, available for viewing directly online, and typically shorter than the full programs available in the source code repository.

Find out more about snippets, or help other programmers by adding your own. C and C++ Programming Tips Find or contribute C and C+ + programming tips and tricks. C++ Syntax Reference Find the proper syntax for any C or C ++ keyword or statement C++ Function Lookup Look at the standard C and C++ functions. C and C++ Questions C and C++ Programming FAQ Get answers to programming questions C and C++ Message Board Post and answer programming questions on the C Message Board–covers C, C++, C#, AI and platform-specific programming! About us Find out who is behind Cprogramming. com

Join our mailing list to keep up with the latest news and updates about Cprogramming. com! Name Email http://www. cprogramming. com/ (3 of 4) [05-11-2011 09:27:21] C programming. com – Learn C and C++ Programming Join Mailing List —-Interested in advertising with us? Please read our privacy policy. Copyright © 1997-2009 Cprogramming. com. All rights reserved. ] http://www. cprogramming. com/ (4 of 4) [05-11-2011 09:27:21] Cprogramming. com – Programming Tutorials: C++ Made Easy and C Made Easy Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes Programming Tutorials – C, C++, OpenGL, STL Welcome!

If you’re new to C++, learn C++ with the C++ made easy tutorial starting at C++ Made Easy, Lesson 1 (all lessons) If you want to learn C instead, check out C Made Easy, Lesson 1 (all lessons) Want more advanced material on C, C++ graphics, game programming or algorithms? We’ve got that too. List advanced tutorial topics » Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tips and Tricks Jobs Tools What do I need? Compilers Editors Debuggers C++ Made Easy: Learning to Program in C++ Learn C++ with this tutorial, designed for beginners and containing lots of examples, tips and simple explanations. Resources Source Code Syntax Reference Snippets Links Directory Book Reviews Function Lookup ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Questions Programming FAQ ? ? Intro to C++ (Quiz) If statements (Quiz) Loops in C++ (Quiz) Functions in C++ (Quiz) Switch case (Quiz) Accessing Memory with Pointers (Quiz) Structures in C++ (Quiz) Storing data with Arrays (Quiz) Character Strings in C++ (Quiz) File I/O (Quiz) Typecasting (Quiz) Classes and introduction to object-oriented programming (Quiz) Inline functions (Quiz) http://www. cprogramming. com/tutorial. html (1 of 10) [05-11-2011 09:28:02] Cprogramming. om – Programming Tutorials: C++ Made Easy and C Made Easy Message Board Ask an Expert Email About Us ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Command line arguments (Quiz) Linked Lists Recursion Variable argument lists for functions Binary Trees Overview of Inheritance Inheritance Syntax and Examples C++ Class Design Enumerated types Formatted Output in C++ using iomanip Templates in C++ Initialization Lists and Inheritance Templated functions Template specialization and partial specialization Understanding the C Preprocessor — Constants, Macros, and other Tricks Generating random Numbers Using Modulus to get remainders Top] C Tutorial – C Made Easy This tutorial is based on the above tutorial, but uses only standard C language features. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Intro to C (Quiz) If statements (Quiz) Loops in C (Quiz) Functions and Program Organization (Quiz) Switch case (Quiz) Pointers (Quiz) Structures Arrays (Quiz) C-style Strings (Quiz) C File I/O Typecasting (Quiz) Command line arguments (Quiz) Linked Lists Recursion Variable argument lists Binary Trees [Top] http://www. cprogramming. com/tutorial. html (2 of 10) [05-11-2011 09:28:02] Cprogramming. om – Programming Tutorials: C++ Made Easy and C Made Easy More Advanced C and C++ Language Features ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Bitwise Operators in C and C++ File I/O in C Print format strings for beautiful output What’s the difference between declaring and defining something in C and C++? Learn about the distinction between declaring a variable, class or function–and defining it–and why it matters when you have trouble compiling your code Removing the Mystery of Function Pointers Functors: Function Objects in C++ References in C++ Const Correctness–Why bother?

How and When to Use Private Inheritance When To Use Goto: A Partial Defense of the goto Statement Using Exceptions for Error Handling in C++ Organizing programs with Namespaces in C++ Understanding the Static Keyword in C and C++ A multipurpose keywords, static can be used globally, locally, and on class variables, with different meanings in each context Templated Classes in C++ Using auto_ptr to avoid memory leaks in C++ Understanding td::string (C++ strings) The friend keyword and data encapsulation Secure Coding – Preventing Buffer Overflows and other attacks Unicode: What you Can Do About it Today Multiple Inheritance in C++ Solving the Diamond Problem with Virtual Inheritance Operator overloading Understanding Constructors, Destructors and Object Lifetime A gentle introduction to C++ IO streams [Top] C++11 – the new C++ standard C++11 is the new C++ standard, and it’s chock full of goodness for C+ + programmers, old and new. ? ? ? ? What is C++11? – Get introduced to the new C++ standard, C+ +11 (previously known as C++0x) Auto, Decltype and return values after functions in C++11 Lambda Functions in C++11 – the definitive guide Range-Based For Loops in C++11 Generalized Constant Expressions in C++11 with constexpr http://www. cprogramming. com/tutorial. html (3 of 10) [05-11-2011 09:28:02] Cprogramming. com – Programming Tutorials: C++ Made Easy and C Made Easy [Top] C++ Standard Template Library (STL)

The STL is a powerful library that comes as part of standard C++, and should be a tool used and understood by all C++ programmers. ? ? ? ? ? An Introduction to the Standard Template Library (STL) The STL Vector Container STL Iterators STL Map Container STL List Container [Top] Understanding Floating Point Numbers by Jeff Bezanson Every programmer should understand enough about floating point numbers to avoid the pitfalls of assuming perfect precision. ? ? ? Background: Accuracy vs. Precision Floating Point Representation Bonus: Printing Floating Point Numbers Cleanly Top] Using Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs) by Jeff Bezanson ? ? ? ? Background and Using the RPC compiler Writing the Server Code Writing the Client and Putting it All Together Get the code [Top] Same Game – A Simple Game from Start to Finish by Ben Marchant Do you want to learn how to create a game? This series will teach you how to create a game, starting from the very beginning and ending with a fully playable game. http://www. cprogramming. com/tutorial. html (4 of 10) [05-11-2011 09:28:02] Cprogramming. om – Programming Tutorials: C++ Made Easy and C Made Easy ? ? ? ? ? Same Game – Part 1: Introduction to technologies and drawing the game board Same Game – Part 2: Creating a real, playable game Same Game – Part 3: Adding difficulty levels and other menu options Same Game – Part 4: Changing the game board size and the block count Same Game – Part 5: Adding undo/redo functionality and keyboard accelerators [Top] Object-Oriented Animation Learn how to design a framework for doing animation–a foundation for many games and graphics engines. ? ? An Introduction to Object Oriented Animation Frames, Layers and Layer Folders The design of the animation engine [Top] Using Microsoft ADO with SQL Databases in C ++ by Patrick Mancier ? ? ? ? ? ? Overview of this tutorial Part 1: Introduction to SQL Part 2: Introduction to ADO Part 3: ADO Wrapper Classes Part 4: Creating the ADO Manager Class Part 5: Using the CADOManager in Practice SDL Tutorials The SDL is a simple library for doing graphics in C and C++ ? Setting up SDL [Top] OpenGL Tutorials (By RoD) ttp://www. cprogramming. com/tutorial. html (5 of 10) [05-11-2011 09:28:02] Cprogramming. com – Programming Tutorials: C++ Made Easy and C Made Easy ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Intro to OpenGL OpenGL vs DirectX OpenGL and Windows The WinMain procedure Windows Programming Intro to WGL, the Windows Graphics Layer Your first OpenGL Program Projections in OpenGL [Top] Rotations in Three Dimensions by Confuted and Silvercord This series of tutorials describes the math required for performing three dimensional rotations. ? ? ? ? ?

The Basics of 3D rotations Rotation Matrices Rotation about an Arbitrary Axis Uses for what you’ve learned Using Quaternions [Top] AI Tutorials Learn about AI, including how to make game AI using the minimax algorithm. ? ? ? ? Perceptrons, a simple neuron simulator MiniMax Game Trees Chess Board Representation Solving problems with genetic algorithms [Top] Data Structures All programmers should know something about basic data structures like stacks, queues and heaps. Graphs are a tremendously useful concept, and two-three trees solve a lot of problems inherent in more basic binary trees. Stack Data Structure http://www. cprogramming. com/tutorial. html (6 of 10) [05-11-2011 09:28:02] Cprogramming. com – Programming Tutorials: C++ Made Easy and C Made Easy ? ? ? ? The Queue Data Structure Heaps Graphs in computer science Two-three trees [Top] Algorithmic Efficiency and Sorting and Searching Algorithms Learn how to determine the efficiency of your program and all about the various algorithms for sorting and searching–both common problems when programming. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Algorithmic Efficiency and Big-O notation Efficiency and the space-time tradeoff Search Algorithms – linear search and binary search Comparison of Sorting Algorithms Intro to sorting algorithms: bubble sort Selection sort and Insertion sort Heap Sort Merge Sort Quicksort Radix Sort a special case sorting algorithm [Top] Advanced Algorithms If you’ve mastered the basics, perhaps you’d like to move to more advanced, specialized algorithms ? ? ? ? ?

Exclusive-OR (XOR) Encryption Dijkstra’s Algorithm for finding shortest paths in graphs Dynamic Programming with an example of all-pairs shortest paths Minimum Spanning Trees and Prim’s Algorithm Huffman Encoding Compressiong Algorithm [Top] Computer Science Theory If you’ve moved on from the advanced algorithms, perhaps you’d like to learn more about the fundamental nature of computation–a deep http://www. cprogramming. com/tutorial. html (7 of 10) [05-11-2011 09:28:02] Cprogramming. com – Programming Tutorials: C++ Made Easy and C Made Easy and rewarding topic. ? ? ? ?

An introduction to the topic of computer science Base Systems – Binary, Hex and Octal The Halting Problem Not for the faint of heart (or beginners), this tutorial covers an advanced topic in computer science: the nature of what can and cannot be computed — what types of problems computers simply cannot solve What We Cannot Know: Consequences of the Halting Problem Coding Style ? ? ? ? Programming Style, Part 1: Whitespace Programming Style, Part 2: Naming Conventions Programming Style, Part 3: How you can write readable code, and why you should How — and Why — to Comment [Top]

Compilers and Makefiles ? ? ? ? Unravelling the mysteries of makefiles Advanced makefile tricks Dealing with the compilation process Why you should fix compiler warnings [Top] Memory Management ? ? ? ? ? Using auto_ptr to manage memory Dynamic Memory Allocation, Part 1: new, delete and multidimensional array allocation Dynamic Memory Allocation, Part 2: Virtual Memory Dynamic Memory Allocation, Part 3: Overloading Operator New and Delete Dynamic Memory Allocation, Part 4: Common Memory Management Problems Once you’re done with these tutorials, take the C++ Memory Management Quiz [Top]

Other Programming Languages http://www. cprogramming. com/tutorial. html (8 of 10) [05-11-2011 09:28:02] Cprogramming. com – Programming Tutorials: C++ Made Easy and C Made Easy Interested in other programming languages, go beyond C and C++ to learn about Java, C# and more! ? ? ? Java for C++ Programmers: A Syntax Cheat Sheet A Summary of C# A Programming Language Comparison [Top] Miscellaneous Programming Articles ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Test Driven Development, The Philosophy Where C and C++ Differ So you want write a game? How do you tell how large an object is?

How to Start Writing a Program Module Development for Game Design Debugging binary search: the difficulty of getting your code right the first time New Year’s Resolutions for C/C++ Programmers 5 New Year’s Resolutions for Programmers, updated for 2011 Thinking about Programming Common Coding Mistakes The 5 Most Common Problems New Programmers Face–And How You Can Solve Them The Secret to Learning Anything 5 Ways You can Learn Programming Faster [Top] Tweet Join our mailing list to keep up with the latest news and updates about Cprogramming. om! Name Email Join Mailing List http://www. cprogramming. com/tutorial. html (9 of 10) [05-11-2011 09:28:02] Cprogramming. com – Programming Tutorials: C++ Made Easy and C Made Easy —-Interested in advertising with us? Please read our privacy policy. Copyright © 1997-2008 Cprogramming. com. All rights reserved. http://www. cprogramming. com/tutorial. html (10 of 10) [05-11-2011 09:28:02] Cprogramming. com – C/C++ Programming and Computer Science Quizzes Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes C++ and Computer Science Quizzes

Test your C++ programming and computer science knowledge against our quizzes and see how much you’ve learned. Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tips and Tricks Jobs General C++ Programming and Computer Science Quizzes ? C, C++ and Computer Science MegaQuiz Test your general C, C++ and computer science knowledge! Subject-specific C++ Quizzes ? Tools What do I need? Compilers Editors Debuggers ? C++ templates quiz Think you know templates? Find out if you do by testing your knowledge with this quiz C++ Memory Allocation quiz Test how well you understand dynamic memory allocation

Language Feature Quizzes These quizzes are based on the material covered in our C and C++ tutorials. Resources C++ Quizzes Source Code Syntax Reference Snippets ? ? C++ Basics If statements http://www. cprogramming. com/quiz/ (1 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:28:22] Cprogramming. com – C/C++ Programming and Computer Science Quizzes Links Directory Book Reviews Function Lookup ? ? ? ? ? Questions Programming FAQ Message Board Ask an Expert Email About Us ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Loops Functions Switch-case Pointers Structures Arrays Strings File I/O Typecasting Classes Inline Methods Command Line Arguments

C Quizzes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? C Basics If statements Loops Functions Switch-case Pointers Structures Arrays Strings Typecasting Command Line Arguments Taken all the tests? Test you skills against our programming challenges. Join our mailing list to keep up with the latest news and updates about Cprogramming. com! Name Email http://www. cprogramming. com/quiz/ (2 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:28:22] Cprogramming. com – C/C++ Programming and Computer Science Quizzes Join Mailing List —-Interested in advertising with us? Please read our privacy policy.

Copyright © 1997-2009 Cprogramming. com. All rights reserved. http://www. cprogramming. com/quiz/ (3 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:28:22] Cprogramming. com – Tutorials – Advanced C, C++, Graphics, Computer Science Tutorials Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes Programming Tutorials C++ tutorials, OpenGL with C++ tutorials, Standard Template Library (STL) tutorials, articles on programming and computer science, as well as Denthor of Asphyxia’s graphics tutorials converted to C++. Please email me with corrections or submissions to this page.

Would you like to use these tutorials on your site? Information for those of you having trouble keeping your program open. subscribe to updates via RSS. Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tips and Tricks Jobs AI Tutorials courtesy of AIhorizon. com ? ? Tools What do I need? Compilers Editors Debuggers ? Perceptrons Learn about a simple way to simulate neurons MiniMax Game Trees Learn about coding a decision-making program Chess Board Representation Learn about efficient chess board representations

OpenGL Tutorials by RoD ? ? ? Resources Source Code Syntax Reference Snippets Links Directory Book Reviews Function Lookup ? ? ? ? ? Intro to OpenGL OpenGL vs DirectX Comparison of OpenGL and DirectX OpenGL and Windows Intro to Windows Programming for OpenGL The WinMain procedure More Windows Programming background Windows Programming The guts of Windows Applications Intro to WGL Intro to Windows Graphics Layer Getting started with OpenGL The first OpenGL program Projections Using Projects in OpenGL

Questions Programming FAQ Message Board Understanding Floating Point Numbers by Jeff Bezanson http://www. cprogramming. com/advtutorial. html (1 of 4) [05-11-2011 09:28:54] Cprogramming. com – Tutorials – Advanced C, C++, Graphics, Computer Science Tutorials Ask an Expert Email About Us Every programmer should understand enough about floating point numbers to avoid the pitfalls of assuming perfect precision. ? ? ? Background: Accuracy vs.

Precision Floating Point Representation Bonus: Printing Floating Point Numbers Cleanly Using Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs) by Jeff Bezanson ? ? ? Background and Using the RPC compiler Writing the Server Code Writing the Client and Putting it All Together Standard Template Library ? ? An Introduction to the STL An introduction to and explanation of the Standard Template Library The Vector class A tutorial on using the vector class Programming Articles ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Static: the multipurpose keyword Graphs in computer science Learn the difference between directed and undirected graphs and why they’re useful Heaps Learn what a heap is, why, when and how to use heaps Intro to sorting algorithms: bubble sort Learn about sorting algorithms, bubble sort, and how it compares to other sorting methods Selection sort and Insertion sort Two sorting algorithms usually superior to bubble sort Algorithmic Efficiency and Big-O notation How to determine the efficiency of your program and understand common algorithms How — and Why — to Comment Why commenting makes you a better programmer Thinking about Programming A Guide to Program Design xor. html A tutorial on Exclusive-OR encryption. common. tml An overview of commonly made programming mistakes. cfileio. html Strict C file I/O and binary file I/O templates. html Templates in C++ csharp. html A discussion of C# Rotations in Three Dimensions by Confuted http://www. cprogramming. com/advtutorial. html (2 of 4) [05-11-2011 09:28:54] Cprogramming. com – Tutorials – Advanced C, C++, Graphics, Computer Science Tutorials and Silvercord This is a series of tutorials detailing the math required for performing three dimensional rotations. ? ? ? ? ? The Basics of 3D rotations Rotation Matrices Rotation about an Arbitrary Axis Uses for what you’ve learned Using Quaternions Graphics Programming Tutorials

I offer these tutorials more as a relic of programming lore than a serious study in how to program graphics in todays environment; nonetheless, if you are searching for C++ DOS graphics, these tutorials may be helpful. They are written by Grant Smith, aka Denthor of Asphyxia. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? The MCGA mode and how you get into it in C++ without a BGI What is the Pallette? Circle and line algorithms What is a Virtual Screen and why do we need it? What is scrolling? Why do I need a lookup table? What is it? The Principles of Animation Optimisation 3D System Join our mailing list to keep up with the latest news and updates about Cprogramming. com! Name Email Join Mailing List http://www. cprogramming. com/advtutorial. html (3 of 4) [05-11-2011 09:28:54] Cprogramming. com – Tutorials – Advanced C, C++, Graphics, Computer Science Tutorials —Interested in advertising with us? Please read our privacy policy. Copyright © 1997-2005 Cprogramming. com. All rights reserved. http://www. cprogramming. com/advtutorial. html (4 of 4) [05-11-2011 09:28:54] C and C++ Programming Articles – Cprogramming. com Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes You might also want to check out the tutorial section for more specific topics such as computer science, C and C++ language features, and more basic material for beginners. Programming Articles ? Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tips and Tricks Jobs ? ? ? Tools What do I need? Compilers Editors Debuggers ? ? ? ?

Resources Source Code Syntax Reference Snippets Links Directory Book Reviews Function Lookup ? ? ? ? ? How do you tell how large an object is? Find out how to determine the size of an object of a class Common debugging mistakes, debugging strategies, tips and gotchas Learn how to avoid common debugging mistakes, prevent certain kinds of bugs, and minimize the impact of bugs on your code Solving cool problems with genetic algorithms An overview of how genetic algorithms work, and how they’ve been used. Debugging binary search: the difficulty of getting your code right the first time The story of a small bet between friends -can Joe write a perfect binary search function without testing?

New Year’s Resolutions for Programmers A few fun resolutions for you to keep this year, of just suggestsions of ways to spend some time How — and Why — to Comment Why commenting makes you a better programmer Thinking about Programming A Guide to Program Design XOR Encryption A tutorial on Exclusive-OR encryption. Common Coding Mistakes An overview of commonly made programming mistakes. A Summary of C# A discussion of C# Why learn to program? An article about the joy of programming An interview with Bjarne Stroustrup Read an interview conducted with Bjarne Stroustrup, creator of C++, given to Cprogramming. com. What the $#@! is Parallelism Anyhow? on parallelism in computing. Questions Intel AppUp http://www. cprogramming. com/articles. html (1 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:29:38] C and C++ Programming Articles – Cprogramming. com Programming FAQ Message Board Ask an Expert Email About Us ? ? ? ? ? Why AppUp?

An Quick Review of the AppUp Model Learn about AppUp, an app store framework that allows developers to submit apps to app stores serving a variety of devices Dixons Challenge Find out how you could win $15,000 for writing the ultimate home-enhancing app in the Dixons Challenge Getting your app on Intel AppUpSM: Porting “Ancient Frog” Interested in writing games for multiple platforms? Want to know what goes in to building a port and how to make your game port-friendly? This interview discusses one developer’s experience porting his game from the iPhone to the netbook. New Incentives and a Whole New Platform From The Intel AppUpSM developer program Intel AppUpSM is now accepting MeeGo apps and offering new incentives for developers. If you’re interested in tablet and netbook development, check it out! MeeGo Gaining Momentum Learn about the latest updates on the MeeGo platform Discussion Articles ? ? Procedural Texture Generation Learn how to generate textures for height maps (by Perspective) Module Development for Game Design Read about a technique for making a modular framework for computer game design and then read the discussion. Searching Techniques Read about various techniques for searching and then read the discussion. Some of these articles originally appeared in Code Journal Back Issues ? ? ? ? ? March 11 Code Journal Feb. 20 Code Journal Feb. 5 Code Journal Jan. 22 Code Journal Jan. 8 Code Journal Join our mailing list to keep up with the latest news and updates about Cprogramming. com! http://www. cprogramming. com/articles. tml (2 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:29:38] C and C++ Programming Articles – Cprogramming. com Name Email Join Mailing List —-Interested in advertising with us? Please read our privacy policy. Copyright © 1997-2005 Cprogramming. com. All rights reserved. http://www. cprogramming. com/articles. html (3 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:29:38] C/C++ Programming Practice Problems – Cprogramming. com Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes C and C++ Programming Practice Problems Many of these problems will also make for excellent C++ job interview preparation. Fill in the blank exercises are designed for true beginners, where a large portion of the code is already provided!

Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tips and Tricks Jobs Fill in the blank exercises Fill in the missing parts of the code to create a working program that will accomplish the stated task. ? ? Tools What do I need? Compilers Editors Debuggers ? Array input and output Guessing game Calculator Basic Programming Challenges ? ? ? ? Temperature Converter – Celsius to Farenheit Count the number of lines in a file Determine the size of a file Find all permutations of a given input Resources Source Code Syntax Reference Snippets Links Directory Book Reviews Function Lookup Intermediate Programming Challenges ? ? ? ? ? Questions ? Factorial Challenge No, not finding X factorial… String Searching with ildcards Converting Decimal to Binary Computing Pascal’s Triangle Print a linked-list in reverse order Implement an in-place linked list reversal Advanced Programming Challenges http://www. cprogramming. com/challenge. html (1 of 2) [05-11-2011 09:30:09] C/C++ Programming Practice Problems – Cprogramming. com Programming FAQ Message Board Ask an Expert Email About Us ? ? Efficiently find the Maximum Subarray Sum It’s possible to do it faster than you might think… Write a self-printing program without file IO Join our mailing list to keep up with the latest news and updates about Cprogramming. com! Name Email Join Mailing List —-Interested in advertising with us? Please read our privacy policy. Copyright © 1997-2006 Cprogramming. com.

All rights reserved. http://www. cprogramming. com/challenge. html (2 of 2) [05-11-2011 09:30:09] C/C++ Programming Tips and Tricks Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes Welcome to Cprogramming. com’s repository or tips for programming in C and C++. Peruse the archives or add your own tips for others to use! Sort by clicking on any of the headers. Tip Solve Any Compiler Error Easily When optimizing code, focus on algorithms first Be careful when storing pointers inside unions Unexpected struct behavior in Borlands Turbo C++ 3 High performance looping Safely using strncpy difference between int* p and int *p declaration use of ! perator Better coding style for comparison Modifying const variables Use const variables as function parameters when po Never do unary minus on sizeof Multiply rather than Divide Prefer pre-increment and pre-decrement Error handling for new Author Wajahat Karim Alex Allain singam kiran reddy Raza Sayed Rachana oliv29 Rating (votes) 3. 4808 (624) 3. 5166 (151) 3. 2538 (130) 3. 1494 (87) 3. 4167 (204) 3. 2700 (100) Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tips and Tricks Tools What do I need? Compilers Editors Debuggers omprakash mishra 3. 4915 (293) mrinal jha nids Wiro Sableng beyonddc Vaibhav Reese Moore Karl Upesh Jindal 3. 1233 (146) 3. 5054 (184) 3. 0208 (96) 2. 9765 (85) 3. 3511 (94) 3. 5070 (142) 3. 0333 (90) 3. 0787 (89) Resources Source Code Syntax Reference Snippets Links Directory Book Reviews http://www. cprogramming. com/tips/ (1 of 2) [05-11-2011 09:30:16] C/C++ Programming Tips and Tricks Function Lookup

Pointer Memory allocation Use ++ and -loop condition Comparisons in CC++ Temporariless Swap compiler tip Keep fit to program better Rounding to an Integer Effective Modularity in Programming Be careful about array size when u are using strcp Programming Tips Pointer Tips 🙂 Initialise all variables Fix all compiler warnings Next 30 Krishnamoorthi Subyraj P. S Krishna Guille Julian Sutherland Luna Man Gorn Sharma PCS Bhushan Verma Jatin Gandhi Jatin Gandhi Jia. Lu rickey 3. 3482 (112) 3. 3278 (1519) 3. 2288 (883) 3. 7353 (408) 3. 1000 (260) 3. 3972 (428) 3. 6408 (348) 3. 3389 (180) 3. 2275 (167) 3. 1589 (491) 3. 3854 (685) 3. 1152 (191) 3. 0889 (135) Questions Programming FAQ Message Board Ask an Expert Email About Us Nikitas Angelinas 3. 6667 (552) Help your fellow programmers! Add a tip! —Interested in advertising with us? Please read our privacy policy. Copyright © 1997-2005 Cprogramming. com. All rights reserved. http://www. cprogramming. com/tips/ (2 of 2) [05-11-2011 09:30:16] Programming Jobs – Cprogramming. com Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes Programming Jobs — Finding a Career in Programming So you’re a programmer and you want a job? Read about our experiences with programming jobs and the job hunt. We cover both the job hunt the interview process along with links to other resources on programming interviews and careers. Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tips and Tricks Jobs

Job Hunting Having a good resume and cover letter, well, matters a lot. The short summary is be brief but bold. Read more in our section on job hunting tips: resume writing, cover letters, and portfolios. Tools Job Interviews What do I need? Compilers Editors Debuggers A good interview can make your application, a bad interview will break it. Programming interviews can be scary, involving both discussions about your qualifications and background, programming puzzles, and, in some cases, brain teasers. Read about job interviews, what you can expect, and how to handle it. Resources Source Code Syntax Reference Snippets Resources for Job Seekers

If you’re worried about your problem solving skills, Programming Pearls by http://www. cprogramming. com/jobs/ (1 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:30:33] Programming Jobs – Cprogramming. com Links Directory Book Reviews Function Lookup Jon Bentley, can help get the juices flowing. Bentley covers lots of techniques for approaching programming problems, and he covers problems of about the size for a decent interview question. The book How Would You Move Mount Fuji? can you give insight into the process of dealing with brain teasers although they are being phased out of the interview process at many places. TechInterview. org provides lots of interesting brainteaser puzzles to help practice for job interviews.

Questions Programming FAQ Message Board Ask an Expert Email About Us Job Openings Do you have a programming-related job opening, either an internship or fulltime, at your company? Let us know at [email protected] com and we’ll post your offer! Join our mailing list to keep up with the latest news and updates about Cprogramming. com! Name Email Join Mailing List —-Interested in advertising with us? Please read our privacy policy. Copyright © 1997-2005 Cprogramming. com. All rights reserved. http://www. cprogramming. com/jobs/ (2 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:30:33] Programming Jobs – Cprogramming. com http://www. cprogramming. com/jobs/ (3 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:30:33]

Tools of the Programmer’s Trade – Cprogramming. com Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes Programming Tools Every programmer should have the proper tools. A good compiler, text editor, and debugger go a long way toward simplifying the mundane chores of programming and can help save time hunting down a strange memory error. Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tips and Tricks Jobs Compilers A compiler is a program that lets you turn your source code file (the file in which you write your program in C or C++) into an executable file that you can run on your computer. To program, you must have a compiler. For my nformation on compilers, check out the compilers page. Tools What do I need? Compilers Editors Debuggers You may also want instructions on using a compiler. Build tools Using a tool like make can help reduce compile time and simplify the build process. Resources Source Code Syntax Reference Snippets Links Directory Book Reviews Function Lookup Text editors A text editor is a program that allows you to create a text file that contains your source code. A text editor can be as simple as Notepad or as complex as Emacs or Vim. A good text editor goes a long way toward simplifying the task of programming. You cannot write C++ code in Microsoft Word (without great difficulty).

For more information on why, and on what features to look for in a text editor, check out the text editor overview. Some good text editors for programmers include Vim and Emacs. Questions http://www. cprogramming. com/tools. html (1 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:30:50] Tools of the Programmer’s Trade – Cprogramming. com Programming FAQ Message Board Ask an Expert Email About Us Debuggers A debugger is a tool for tracking down problems with your code -bugs — that result in unexpected behavior of a running program (“at runtime”). A debugger will let you get inside your code — you can run a program in a debugger and temporarily pause execution to see what line of code is being xecuted, the values of variables, and other information that will help you tell what your program is doing and why it isn’t doing what you expect. A good debugger will help you pinpoint where your bug is located within your code and give you extra clues, such as what values each variable contains, that can help you figure out what mistake you have made. Many compilers come with built in debuggers, and GDB is also available as a stand alone program; you can also read our GDB tutorial that takes you through the basics of using GDB. Memory profilers such as valgrind or Purify can help you debug memory leaks. Valgrind is free, but Purify will cost you real money. Books Check out our recommended book series From C++ Beginner To C++ Expert.

In addition, good references and interesting problems to challenge the mind should sit on every programmer’s bookshelf. Although Google answers a lot of questions, the depth of books on specific topics or on computer science as a whole, such as the wellknown work by Donald Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, can often help when you’re stuck looking for the right algorithm, or just need some inspiration. Join our mailing list to keep up with the latest news and updates about Cprogramming. com! Name Email Join Mailing List http://www. cprogramming. com/tools. html (2 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:30:50] Tools of the Programmer’s Trade – Cprogramming. com —Interested in advertising with us? Please read our privacy policy. Copyright © 1997-2005 Cprogramming. com. All rights reserved. http://www. cprogramming. com/tools. html (3 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:30:50] C and C++ Compiler Information and Reviews – Cprogramming. com Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes Compilers What is a compiler? A compiler is necessary to make your source code (.. c, . cpp, or . cc files) into a running program. If you’re just starting out, you’ll need to make sure that you have one before you start programming. There are many compilers available on the internet and sold commercially in stores or online.

If you have Mac OS X, Linux, or other *nix variant (such as Unix or FreeBSD), you likely have a compiler such as gcc or g++ installed already. Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tips and Tricks Jobs Tools What do I need? Compilers Editors Debuggers Compiler terminology Compile Colloquially, to convert a source code file into an executable, but strictly speaking, compilation is an intermediate step ? Link The act of taking compiled code and turning it into an executable ? Build A build refers to the process of creating the end executable (what is often colloquially referred to as compilation). Tools exist to help reduce the complexity of the build process-makefiles, for instance. ? Compiler Generally, compiler refers to both a ?

Resources Source Code Syntax Reference http://www. cprogramming. com/compilers. html (1 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:31:38] C and C++ Compiler Information and Reviews – Cprogramming. com Snippets Links Directory Book Reviews Function Lookup Questions Programming FAQ Message Board Ask an Expert Email About Us compiler and a “linker” ? Linker The program that generates the executable by linking ? IDE Integrated Development Environment, a combination of a text editor and a compiler, such that you can compile and run your programs directly within the IDE. IDEs usually have facilities to help you quickly jump to compiler errors. Understanding the Compilation Process ? ? ? ?

The compilation and linking process A brief description of exactly what happens when you compile a program, covering the above terms in more detail Dealing with Compilation Errors Some suggestions for hunting down compiler and linker errors in your code Understanding Compiler Warnings Learn what compiler warnings mean and the hows and whys of fixing them What’s the difference between declaring and defining something in C and C++? Learn about the distinction between declaring a variable, class or function–and defining it–and why it matters when you have trouble compiling or linking your code What compilers are available? Windows ? ? Code::Blocks and MINGW Our recommended free compiler setup! Code:: Blocks is lso available on Linux. Borland Find out how to download and set up Borland’s free command-line compiler http://www. cprogramming. com/compilers. html (2 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:31:38] C and C++ Compiler Information and Reviews – Cprogramming. com ? Microsoft Visual C++ Read about Visual C ++ *nix ? ? g++ is a C++ compiler that comes with most *nix distributions. gcc is a C compiler that comes with most *nix distributions. Mac OS X ? Apple XCode XCode is the development platform to use for OS X or iPhone programming. —-Interested in advertising with us? Please read our privacy policy. Copyright © 1997-2009 Cprogramming. com. All rights reserved. ttp://www. cprogramming. com/compilers. html (3 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:31:38] Text Editors for Programmeres – Programming Tools – Cprogramming. com Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes What is a text editor? A text editor is used to edit plain text files. Text editors differ from word processors, such as Microsoft Word or WordPerfect, in that they do not add additional formatting information to documents. You might write a paper in Word, because it contains tools to change fonts, margins, and layout, but Word by default puts that formatting and layout information directly into the file, which will confuse the compiler. If you open a . oc file in a text editor, you will notice that most of the file is formatting codes. Text editors, however, do not add formatting codes, which makes it easier to compile your code. Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tips and Tricks Jobs Why should I use a text editor? Text editors have a feature set different from that of a traditional word processing program. For example, most won’t let you include pictures, or include tables, or double-space your writing. The features of text editors vary from implementation to implementation, but there are several kinds of features that most editors have. Below are listed some of the most common and useful features. Tools What do I need? Compilers Editors Debuggers

Syntax highlighting Resources Source Code Syntax Reference Snippets Syntax highlighting is a very useful feature. It means that the editor will highlight certain words or types or syntax specific to a language. For example, if you have C++ highlighting turned on, the editor might make all C++ control flow keywords appear green. This makes it much easier to follow the flow of your http://www. cprogramming. com/texteditors. html (1 of 6) [05-11-2011 09:31:59] Text Editors for Programmeres – Programming Tools – Cprogramming. com Links Directory Book Reviews Function Lookup program. As another example, the editor might have all quoted text show up as light blue.

This way, if you forget to include an opening or closing quotation mark, you will quickly realize it because of the color of the text on your screen. A text editor might also indicate mismatched parentheses or brackets by turning them red; if you have a closing brace with no corresponding opening one, the color will tell you that you made a syntax error somewhere. //Here is an example of what text might look like in your editor. //This text is colored because it is a comment. if (x ; 5) { //The closing parenthesis is red because it is unmatched. x = 5 – ((3 + y) * (8 + (z / 24)))); } Questions Programming FAQ Message Board Ask an Expert Email About Us Versatility How does the editor know which words to highlight?

Good question. The editor knows what language you are programming in. It does this by either having you tell it, or, like Vim, detecting the suffix of the file. If you are working on a file named code. cc, it will see the . cc and know to use C++ rules, but if you are working on one called code. html, it will apply HTML rules instead. Some editors know hundreds of languages, ranging from the commonplace (C, Java, Perl) to the truly obscure (TADS, ABAQUS). This means that you can use the same editor to program in practically any language you can think of and still enjoy the same feature and command set that you’ve become accustomed to. Automatic indenting utomatic indenting is probably the most useful feature of a text editor. would you rather deal with code that looks like this (taken from a fifteen-puzzle): int get_col (int tile_id) { /*Cycle through… */ int i = 0, j = 0; while (i < Dim) http://www. cprogramming. com/texteditors. html (2 of 6) [05-11-2011 09:31:59] Text Editors for Programmeres – Programming Tools – Cprogramming. com { if (board[i][j] == tile_id) { return i; } /*If you’ve hit the end of the row, move to the beginning of the * next. */ if (i == Dim-1) { j++; i = 0; /*Otherwise move to the next space in the row. */ } else { i++; } } /*This is only to get rid of the warning. / return i; } or code that looks like this? : int get_col ( int tile_id) { /*Cycle through… */ int i = 0, j = 0; while (i ; Dim) { if (board[i][j] == tile_id) { return i; http://www. cprogramming. com/texteditors. html (3 of 6) [05-11-2011 09:31:59] Text Editors for Programmeres – Programming Tools – Cprogramming. com } /*If you’ve hit the end of the row, move to the beginning of the next*/ if (i == Dim-1) { j++; i = 0; /*Otherwise move to the next space in the row. */ } else { i++; /*This is only to get rid of the warning. */ return i; I thought so. A text editor will spare you the trouble of having to put in all the tabs yourself by adding them automatically.

This has the benefit of letting you follow the control flow through indentation, so that you can make sure you are in the right block of code as you write. Quick navigation features If your program is anything above trivial, you’ll want to be able to move through it quickly to find certain functions, instances of certain variables, or particular lines. Text editors typically have more sophisticated movement capability than word processors. For example, say you’re compiling a program and find that you have a syntax error on line 312. In Vim, all you have to do is type 312G, and the cursor will move to line 312. (How does Vim know you don’t want to type the characters 312G into the document? More on that in the links at the end of the article. ) http://www. cprogramming. om/texteditors. html (4 of 6) [05-11-2011 09:31:59] Text Editors for Programmeres – Programming Tools – Cprogramming. com Which text editor should I use? What’s the difference between them? How do I get one? How much do they cost? There are many, many different editors available, with Vim and Emacs being two of the most popular, portable, and powerful. Another popular editor is Notepad++, a vastly improved version of Notepad. Most editors (Vim and Emacs included) are free, but some are shareware. I use Vim, but each editor has its adherents. For a good listing of some of the best editors available for your platform, check out this FAQ on text editors. It’s aimed at STATA users, but all the editors listed are just fine for writing C++ code. ) Join our mailing list to keep up with the latest news and updates about Cprogramming. com! Name Email Join Mailing List —-Interested in advertising with us? Please read our privacy policy. http://www. cprogramming. com/texteditors. html (5 of 6) [05-11-2011 09:31:59] Text Editors for Programmeres – Programming Tools – Cprogramming. com Copyright © 1997-2005 Cprogramming. com. All rights reserved. http://www. cprogramming. com/texteditors. html (6 of 6) [05-11-2011 09:31:59] Cprogramming. com – Debuggers Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes

Debuggers and Debugging Techniques Writing code is only the beginning of completing a programming project. After the original implementation is complete, it is time to test the program. Unfortunately, only the rare (and usually non-priority) code project is completed without a single bug. Hence, debugging takes on great importance: the earlier you find an error, the less it will cost. A major bug found before distribution is much, much cheaper to fix than a major bug found by thousands of your users. A debugger allows you, the programmer, to interact and inspect the running program, making it possible to trace the flow of execution and track down the problems.

Read on for tutorials on debuggers like GDB and Visual Studio, as well as more exotic and powerful tools like Valgrind. Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tips and Tricks Jobs Tools What do I need? Compilers Editors Debuggers GDB GDB is the standard debugger for Linux and Unixlike operating systems. ? ? Resources Source Code Syntax Reference Snippets GDB by Example – an introduction to GDB More Advanced GDB – more advanced debugging techniques using GDB http://www. cprogramming. com/debuggers. html (1 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:32:37] Cprogramming. com – Debuggers Links Directory Book Reviews Function Lookup Advanced Linux Debugging ? Questions Programming FAQ Message Board Ask an Expert Email About Us ? unting segmentation faults and pointer errors – Learn how to debug the trickiest programming problems Finding memory leaks and other errors with Valgrind – Learn how to use Valgrind, a powerful tool that helps find memory leaks and invalid memory usage. Visual Studio Visual Studio is a powerful editor and debugger for Windows ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Debugging with Visual Studio, Part 1: Debugging Concepts Debugging with Visual Studio, Part 2: Setting up the IDE Debugging with Visual Studio, Part 3: Using Breakpoints Effectively Debugging with Visual Studio, Part 4: Setting up Code for the Debugger Debugging with Visual Studio, Part 5: Using Trace and Log Messages Debugging with Visual Studio, Part 6: Remote Debugging 5 Awesome Visual Studio Debugger Features Skip Stepping Into Library Functions with Visual Studio’s NoStepInto Option. General Debugging Stratgies ? ug prevention, debugging strategies, tips, and gotchas – Help prevent small problems from becoming big headaches http://www. cprogramming. com/debuggers. html (2 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:32:37] Cprogramming. com – Debuggers ? How to Avoid, Find (and fix) Memory Errors in Your C/C++ Code —-Interested in advertising with us? Please read our privacy policy. Copyright © 1997-2005 Cprogramming. com. All rights reserved. http://www. cprogramming. com/debuggers. html (3 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:32:37] Free Source Code – Cprogramming. com Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes C and C++ Source Code Find C and C++ source code to help you learn to program.

You can submit your own code, or you can simply browse and download the code of others. Finally, you might want to check out Code Cogs – An Open Source Scientific Library / Database in C++ for more code. Home | Add Resource | Modify Resource Index :: Index Categories: There are a total of 8 categories at this level: Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tips and Tricks Tools What do I need? Compilers Editors Debuggers Resources Source Code Links Directory Book Reviews Function Lookup http://www. cprogramming. com/cgi-bin/source/source. cgi (1 of 2) [05-11-2011 09:32:42] Free Source Code – Cprogramming. com Questions Programming FAQ Message Board Ask an Expert Email About Us

Algorithms (13) Code demonstrating programming concepts Games (12) Source code for games Language Features (8) Source code demonstrating specific features of C or C++ Sound (1) Source code demonstrating sound I/O Artificial Intelligence (1) Source code demonstrating Artificial Intelligence concepts Graphics (11) Source code for accessing the graphics card Projects (2) Source code for full programs Utilities (9) Source code that performs useful utility-like functions There are a total of 57 resources for you to browse. —-Interested in advertising with us? Please read our privacy policy. Copyright © 1997-2006 Cprogramming. com. All rights reserved. Copyright 2000 © Obsidian-Scripts. All rights reserved. http://www. cprogramming. com/cgi-bin/source/source. cgi (2 of 2) [05-11-2011 09:32:42] Cprogramming. om – CC++ Language Syntax Reference Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes C and C++ Language Syntax Reference Most of the notes in this reference conform to both C and C++. When a syntax distinction between C and C++ exists, it is explicitly noted. Some elements are listed under multiple categories, in which case all but the primary reference have listed with an @ sign. ? Flow Control r If statement r If-else statement r Switch and case r goto r break r continue ? Loops r For loop r While loop r Do while loop ? Variables r primitive variable declarations r Non-const pointer declaration r @Const Pointers vs. Const Pointer Data ?

Pointers r getting a memory address – primitive type r getting a memory address – arrays r getting a memory address – functions r getting a memory address stored in a pointer r dereferencing a pointer r Const Pointers vs. Const Pointer Data ? Typecasting r C-style typecast r static cast r dynamic cast Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tools What do I need? Compilers Editors Debuggers Resources Source Code Syntax Reference Snippets Links Directory Book Reviews Function Lookup Questions Programming FAQ Message Board http://www. cprogramming. com/reference/ (1 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:33:01] Cprogramming. com – CC++ Language Syntax Reference Ask an Expert Email About Us ? ? ? ? ? onst cast r reinterpret cast Truth and Falsehood r True r False Operators r assignment r comparison – equality r Boolean Or r Boolean And r Boolean Not Structs r basic struct declaration r pointer to a struct declaration r access element, basic r dereferencing point to struct to access member Arrays r basic array declarations r accessing array elements C Preprocessor Directives r #include r #define r #if r #ifdef r #ifndef r Join our mailing list to keep up with the latest news and updates about Cprogramming. com! Name Email Join Mailing List —– http://www. cprogramming. com/reference/ (2 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:33:01] Cprogramming. com – CC++ Language Syntax Reference Interested in advertising with us? Please read our privacy policy. Copyright © 1997-2005 Cprogramming. com.

All rights reserved. http://www. cprogramming. com/reference/ (3 of 3) [05-11-2011 09:33:01] Cprogramming. com – C/C++ Programming Code Snippets Search Starting out Getting Started Tutorials Quizzes Welcome to Cprogramming. com’s programming code snippet repository. Peruse the archives or add your own snippets for others to use! (Check the following link a better definition of a snippet) Sort by clicking on any of the headers. Rating (votes) 2. 8165 (218) Moving on Advanced Tutorials Articles Practice Problems Tips and Tricks Snippet Converts a real number to the string. Validate Longitudinal Redundancy Checksum (LRC) Permutation Generator View the contents of a