CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background of the Project LED blinking project can be used as attraction. This project was done with PIC16877A. The LED will blinking on delay timer which make the LED look like running. 1. 2 Problem Statement The circuit need to off manually or need to cut the voltage to stop the blink. By using the magnetic switch the circuit can off by giving input to the PIC. 1. 3 Objective The objective of this project is to develop the LED blinking circuit together with the program. . 4 Project Implementation CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 0 Background of Study 2. 1 LED A light-emitting diode (LED is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.
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When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the colour of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. An LED is often small in area ( and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern.
LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements for aviation lighting, automotive lighting (particularly brake lamps, turn signals and indicators) as well as in traffic signals.
The compact size, the possibility of narrow bandwidth, switching speed, and extreme reliability of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions, DVD players, and other domestic appliances. Figure 2. 1. 1. 1 shows example of LED 2. 1. 2 PIC
PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1640 originally developed by General Instrument’s Microelectronics Division. The name PIC initially referred to “Peripheral Interface Controller”. PICs are popular with both industrial developers and hobbyists alike due to their low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, availability of low cost or free development tools, and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability.
The original PIC was built to be used with General Instruments’ new 16-bit CPU, the CP1600. While generally a good CPU, the CP1600 had poor I/O performance, and the 8-bit PIC was developed in 1975 to improve performance of the overall system by offloading I/O tasks from the CPU. The PIC used simple microcode stored in ROM to perform its tasks, and although the term was not used at the time, it shares some common features with RISC designs. In 1985, General Instruments spun off their microelectronics division and the new ownership cancelled almost everything — which by this time was mostly out-of-date.
The PIC, however, was upgraded with internal EPROM to produce a programmable channel controller and today a huge variety of PICs are available with various on-board peripherals and program memory from 256 words to 64k words and more (a “word” is one assembly language instruction, varying from 12, 14 or 16 bits depending on the specific PIC micro family). PIC and PIC micro are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology. It is generally thought that PIC stands for Peripheral Interface Controller, although General Instruments’ original acronym for the initial PIC1640 and PIC1650 devices was “Programmable Interface Controller”.
The acronym was quickly replaced with “Programmable Intelligent Computer”. Figure 2. 1. 2. 1 shows example of PICs 2. 1. 3 Program language There are several ways of programming the PIC – using BASIC, C, or Assembly Language. After finish writing program, the program need to convert to hex using complier before writing. 2. 2 Review of past work on LED blinking. There is work done on LED blinking but using only one LED. A LED blink with a one second delay and is work also using same PIC that used in project. Figure 2. 2. 1 shows the previous work circuit diagram and block diagram.
There also many work using different type of PIC for pic blinking project. But most of the project is similar to above one. 2. 3 Introduction of proposed work The proposed work is using same PIC as above but having output and magnetic switch as input. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Project Flow ChartStart Identify and choose title Research Building the hardware and coding Analysis Testing Identify the problem YES Update/Upgrade NO END 3. 2 Components Table 3. 2. 1 shows the component that used in the project. Component| Quantity(Pcs)| PIC 16877A | 1| L7805CV Voltage Regulator| 1| LED| 16| Crystal 4Mhz| 1| Capacitor 22µF| 2| Magnetic Switch| 1|
Bread Board| 1| 3. 3 Compile the programming We use MicroC compiler to compile the programme. After the procedure of open the program create a new file was settled down, the next process is to write the source code for PIC16F877A in C programming. So, the source code for PIC’s microcontroller would be shown in appendix A. We need type the code of the programming and then we check the programme coding whether it has any error. After the coding we satisfy has no error, finally the C program convert into Hex file is created. Figure 3. 3. 1: The coding of the programme Figure 3. 3. 2: After build hex file is created. 3. 4 Burning process
After the procedure of built hex file was settled down, the next process is to write the hex file into the PIC16F877A microcontroller. So, the need to connect the burner of the microcontroller to the PC and then the PICKit-2 software was open. After that, the hex file was imported. The hex file will write into the microcontroller and verify it. Figure 3. 4. 1: Import the hex file Figure 3. 4. 2: The verification of the hex file is successful 3. 5 Program flow chart CHAPTER 4 RESULTS ; DISCUSSION 4. 1 Introduction When we finish designed and built the circuit, we need to test the circuit whether it function well or not.
This is to ensure whether this project is successful or fail. This chapter will show all the results which obtained through this project. 4. 2 Result of this project For programming result, many modifications and practical testing on programming tasks have been set up in order to program the circuit. Finally the result was obtained after several testing on the circuit had been made. The program was compiling by using MicroC compiler for the program code and the message was appeared if the source code does not have any syntax errors and successfully compiled.
When the power supply connects to the circuit, the LED on the circuit is starting off for 0. 05 second and also on for 0. 05 second. This process will be continuously until the magnetic switch come to contact. The process of this project is shown in figure below. Figure 4. 2. 1 Led is blinking when magnetic switch is away Figure 4. 2. 2 LED is stop blinking when magnetic switch is contact We can used it in transportation instead of flashing light which can be used to warn oncoming traffic about accidents and detours, as well as keep passenger cars away from trains, buses, and other transportation vehicles.
There are several benefits to help people in prevent accidents and help to keep people safe. Since the it function as a flashing light, it can used as a warning to drivers or pedestrians, it can help to reduce injuries and deaths caused by traffic accidents and safety violations. The blinking LED can also help to create an exciting atmosphere for a special event, ensuring that everyone in the audience has an enjoyable time. 4. 3 Discussion By doing this project, the objectives and scopes of work are achieved there are some difficulties that faced while completing this project.
After some investigations had been done, there are listed below. In this project, microcontroller has been used. This microcontroller is not working by itself. It has to be programmed to perform for desired purpose. The coding for the PIC microcontroller not just used C Programming language only. However, we must know and learned all the instructions must be studied and familiar while doing the coding. To master in coding of the program, one semesters learning actually is not enough to be an impressive programmer for the microcontroller. During developing this project, we need many of electronic components.
However, the knowledge to understand and using the electronic components is crucial. So, to overcome this problem, the research about electronic components from the valid source such as books or company data sheets is necessary. Another way, asked to the person whom is familiar with the functions of these electronic components. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. 1 Conclusion This project is a product that built with low budget. In this project, we used microcontroller PIC16F877A is really reliable product that can be customized just by readjusting the source code for PIC.
For this project, it has met the objectives and also the scopes of project. This project can be used as a flashing light. This project can be used as a warning of the traffic alert. Even though the project objectives and scopes had been met, there are some recommended to improvements can be made to make this product more reliable 5. 2 Recommendation For the future consideration, we can modify this project to can make it as signal code or Moss code. We can connect this circuit to the dual in line package (DIP) switch. DIP switch can be used to control light dimmer. So, we present the dimmer of the light to the Morse code.
Figure 5. 2. 1: Morse code Otherwise, we for the advance performance with use LED, we can use decoder in the circuit to make a signboard moving sign. However, the built a circuit of the this signboard is quite difficult because it in need many other electronics components such as Insulation-displacement connectors (IDC) Connectors, Hex Inverting Buffers and RS232 Comm Port. Overall, the works performed had produced a product that is useful in current form and offers solid basis for future work in attempting to realize the dream of complete and advanced LED linking applications. . 3 Summary The project was done successful in time and all the member gain new experience in this project. The problem and difficulties taught very valuable lessons for the all member to avoid a same mistake at the next level of the project. For the future prospect, this project can be advanced to increase the performance. Using Fuzzy logic controller is the best way to enhance the stability of the project to ensure the efficiency of this system.