Natural Dyes

Natural Dyes

Natural dyes are dyes or colorants derived from plants, invertebrates,a or minerals. The majority of natural dyes are vegetable dyes from plant sources – roots, berries, bark, leaves, and wood — and other organic sources such as fungi and lichens. Archaeologists have found evidence of textile dyeing dating back to the Neolithic period. In China, dyeing with plants, barks and insects has been traced back more than 5,000 years. [1] The essential process of dyeing changed little over time.

Typically, the dye material is put in a pot of water and then the textiles to be dyed are added to the pot, which is heated and stirred until the color is transferred. Textile fiber may be dyed before spinning (dyed in the wool), but most textiles are yarn-dyed or piece-dyed after weaving. Many natural dyes require the use of chemicals called mordants to bind the dye to the textile fibers; tannin from oak galls, salt, natural alum, vinegar, and ammonia from stale urine were used by early dyers.

Many mordants, and some dyes themselves, produce strong odors, and large-scale dyeworks were often isolated in their own districts. Throughout history, people have dyed their textiles using common, locally available materials, but scarce dyestuffs that produced brilliant and permanent colors such as the natural invertebrate dyes Tyrian purple and crimson kermes became highly prized luxury items in the ancient and medieval world. Plant-based dyes such as woad, indigo, saffron, and madder were raised commercially and were important trade goods in the economies of Asia and Europe.

Across Asia and Africa, patterned fabrics were produced using resist dyeing techniques to control the absorption of color in piece-dyed cloth. Dyes from the New World such as cochineal and logwood were brought to Europe by the Spanish treasure fleets, and the dyestuffs of Europe were carried by colonists to America. The discovery of man-made synthetic dyes in the mid-19th century triggered the end of the large-scale market for natural dyes.

Synthetic dyes, which could be produced in large quantities, quickly superseded natural dyes for the commercial textile production enabled by the industrial revolution, and unlike natural dyes, were suitable for the synthetic fibers that followed. Artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement preferred the pure shades and subtle variability of natural dyes, which mellow with age but preserve their true colors, unlike early synthetic dyes,[1] and helped ensure that the old European techniques for dyeing and printing with natural dyestuffs were preserved for use by home and craft dyers.

Natural dyeing techniques are also preserved by artisans in traditional cultures around the world. Contents[hide] * 1 Origins * 2 Processes * 3 Common dyestuffs * 3. 1 Reds and pinks * 3. 2 Oranges * 3. 3 Yellows * 3. 4 Greens * 3. 5 Blues * 3. 6 Purples * 3. 7 Browns * 3. 8 Greys and blacks * 3. 9 Lichen * 3. 10 Fungi * 4 Luxury dyestuffs * 4. 1 Royal purple * 4. 2 Crimson and scarlet * 4. 3 The rise of formal black * 5 Decline and rediscovery * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links| [edit] Origins

Colors in the “ruddy” range of reds, browns, and oranges are the first attested colors in a number of ancient textile sites ranging from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age across the Levant, Egypt, Mesopotamia and Europe, followed by evidence of blues and then yellows, with green appearing somewhat later. The earliest surviving evidence of textile dyeing was found at the large Neolithic settlement at Catalhoyuk in southern Anatolia, where traces of red dyes, possible from ochre (iron oxide pigments from clay), were found. 2] Polychrome or multicolored fabrics seem to have been developed in the 3rd or 2nd millennium BCE. [2] Textiles with a “red-brown warp and an ochre-yellow weft” were discovered in Egyptian pyramids of the Sixth Dynasty (2345-2180 BCE). [3] The chemical analysis that would definitively identify the dyes used in ancient textiles has rarely been conducted, and even when a dye such as indigo blue is detected it is impossible to determine which of several indigo-bearing plants was used. 4] Nevertheless, based on the colors of surviving textile fragments and the evidence of actual dyestuffs found in archaeological sites, reds, blues, and yellows from plant sources were in common use by the late Bronze Age and Iron Age. [5] [edit] Processes For more details on this topic, see Glossary of dyeing terms. Dyeing wool cloth, 1482, from British Library Royal MS 15. E. iii, f. 269. The essential process of dyeing requires soaking the material containing the dye (the dyestuff) in water, adding the textile to be dyed to the resulting solution (the dyebath), and bringing the solution to a simmer for an xtended period, often measured in days or even weeks, stirring occasionally until the color has evenly transferred to the textiles. [6] Some dyestuffs, such as indigo and lichens, will give good color when used alone; these dyes are called direct dyes or substantive dyes. The majority of plant dyes, however, also require the use of a mordant, a chemical used to “fix” the color in the textile fibers. These dyes are called adjective dyes. By using different mordants, dyers can often obtain a variety of colors and shades from the same dye.

Fibers or cloth may be pretreated with mordants, or the mordant may be incorporated in the dyebath. In traditional dyeing, the common mordants are vinegar, tannin from oak bark, sumac, or oak galls, ammonia from stale urine, and wood-ash liquor or potash (potassium carbonate) made by leaching wood ashes and evaporating the solution. [7][8][9] We shall never know by what chances primitive man discovered that salt, vinegar from fermenting fruit, natural alum, and stale urine helped to fix and enhance the colours of his yarns, but for many centuries these four substances were used as mordants. 7] Salt helps to “fix” or increase “fastness” of colors, vinegar improves reds and purples, and the ammonia in stale urine assists in the fermentation of indigo dyes. [7] Natural alum (aluminum sulfate) is the most common metallic salt mordant, but tin (stannous chloride), copper (cupric sulfate), iron (ferrous sulfate, called copperas) and chrome (potassium dichromate) are also used. Iron mordants “sadden” colors, while tin and chrome mordants brighten colors. Additional chemicals or alterants may be applied after dying to further alter or reinforce the colors. [10][11]

A dye-works with baskets of dyestuffs, skeins of dyed yarn, and heated vats for dyeing. Textiles may be dyed as raw fiber (dyed in the fleece or dyed in the wool), as spun yarn (dyed in the hank or yarn-dyed), or after weaving (piece-dyed). [12] Mordants often leave residue in wool fiber that makes it difficult to spin, so wool was generally dyed after spinning, as yarn or woven cloth. Indigo, however, requires no mordant, and cloth manufacturers in medieval England often dyed wool in the fleece with the indigo-bearing plant woad and then dyed the cloth again after weaving to produce deep blues, browns, reds, purples, blacks, and tawnies. 13][14] In China, Japan, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, Gambia, and other parts of West Africa and southeast Asia, patterned silk and cotton fabrics were produced using resist dyeing techniques in which the cloth is printed or stenciled with starch or wax, or tied in various ways to prevent even penetration of the dye when the cloth is piece-dyed. Chinese ladao is dated to the 10th century; other traditional techniques include tie-dye, batik, Roketsuzome, katazome, bandhani and leheria. 15] The mordants used in dyeing and many dyestuffs themselves give off strong and unpleasant odors, and the actual process of dyeing requires a good supply of fresh water, storage areas for bulky plant materials, vats which can be kept heated (often for days or weeks), and airy spaces to dry the dyed textiles. Ancient large-scale dye-works tend to be located on the outskirts of populated areas, on windy promontories. [16] [edit] Common dyestuffs The Hunt of the Unicorn Tapestry, dyed with weld (yellow), madder (red), and woad (blue).

Backside of loomed quillwork collected from an Upper Missouri tribe by the Lewis and Clark Expedition, pre-1804. All natural dyes. Collection of the University of Pennsylvania Museum [edit] Reds and pinks A variety of plants produce red dyes, including a number of lichens, henna, alkanet or dyer’s bugloss (Alkanna tinctoria), asafoetida and madder. [17] Madder (rubia tinctoria) and related plants of the Rubia family are native to many temperate zones around the world, and have been used as a source of good red dye (rose madder) since prehistory.

Madder has been identified on linen in the tomb of Tutankhamun,[17] and Pliny the Elder records madder growing near Rome. [18] Madder was a dye of commercial importance in Europe, being cultivated in Holland and France to dye the red coats of military uniforms until the market collapsed following the development of synthetic alizarin dye in 1869. Madder was also used to dye the “hunting pinks” of Great Britain. [18] Turkey red was a strong, very fast red dye for cotton obtained from madder root via a complicated multistep process involving “sumac and oak galls, calf’s blood, sheep’s dung, oil, soda, alum, and a solution of tin. [19] Turkey red was developed in India and spread to Turkey. Greek workers familiar with the methods of its production were brought to France in 1747, and Dutch and English spies soon discovered the secret. A sanitized version of Turkey red was being produced in Manchester by 1784, and roller-printed dress cottons with a Turkey red ground were fashionable in England by the 1820s. [20][21] Munjeet or Indian madder (Rubia cordifolia) is native to the Himalayas and other mountains of Asia and Japan. Munjeet was an important dye for the Asian cotton industry and is still used by craft dyers in Nepal. 22] Puccoon or bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) is a popular red dye among Southeastern Native American basketweavers. [23] Choctaw basketweavers additionally use sumac for red dye. [24] Coushattas artists from Texas and Louisiana used the water oak (Quercus nigra L. ) to produce red. [25] A delicate rose color in Navajo rugs comes from fermented prickly pear cactus fruit, Opuntia polycantha. [26] Navajo weavers also use rainwater and red dirt to create salmon-pink dyes. [27] [edit] Oranges Dyes that create reds and yellows can also yield oranges.

Navajo dyers create orange dyes from one-seeded juniper, Juniperus monosperma, Navajo tea, Thelesperma gracile,[28] or alder bark. [29] [edit] Yellows Yellow dyes are “about as numerous as red ones”,[30] and can be extracted from saffron, pomegranate rind, turmeric, safflower, onion skins, and a number of weedy flowering plants. [30][31] There is limited evidence of the use of weld (Reseda luteola), also called mignonette or dyer’s rocket [32] before the Iron Age,[30] but it was an important dye of the ancient Mediterranean and Europe, and is indigenous to England. 33] Two brilliant yellow dyes of commercial importance in Europe from the 18th century are derived from trees of the Americas: quercitron from the inner bark of oaks native to North America and fustic from the dyer’s mulberry tree (Maclura tinctoria) of the West Indies and Mexico. [31] In rivercane basketweaving among Southeastern tribes, butternut (Juglans cinerea) and yellow root (Xanthorhiza simplicissima) provide a rich yellow color. [23] Chitimacha basket weavers have a complex formula for yellow that employs a dock plant (most likely Rumex crispus) for yellow. 34] Navajo artists create yellow dyes from small snake-weed and brown onion skins, and rubber plant (Parthenium incanum). Rabbitbush (Chrysothamnus) and rose hips produce pale, yellow-cream colored dyes. [29] [edit] Greens If plants that yield yellow dyes are common, plants that yield green dyes are rare. Both woad and indigo have been used since ancient times in combination with yellow dyes to produce shades of green. Medieval and Early Modern England was especially known for its green dyes.

The dyers of Lincoln, a great cloth town in the high Middle Ages, produced the Lincoln green cloth associated with Robin Hood by dyeing wool with woad and then overdyeing it yellow with weld or dyer’s greenweed (Genista tinctoria), also known as dyer’s broom. [35] Woolen cloth mordanted with alum and dyed yellow with dyer’s greenweed was overdyed with woad and, later, indigo, to produce the once-famous Kendal green. [33] This in turn fell out of fashion in the 18th century in favor of the brighter Saxon green, dyed with indigo and fustic. Soft olive greens are also achieved when textiles dyed yellow are treated with an iron mordant.

The dull green cloth common to the Iron Age Halstatt culture shows traces of iron, and was possibly colored by boiling yellow-dyed cloth in an iron pot. [36] Indigenous peoples of the Northwest Plateau in North America used lichen to dye corn husk bags a beautiful sea green. [37] Navajo textile artist Nonabah Gorman Bryan developed a two-step process for creating green dye. First the Churro wool yarn is dyed yellow with sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata, and then it is soaked in black dye afterbath. [26] Red onion skins are also used by Navajo dyers to produce green. [29] [edit] Blues

Blue colorants around the world were derived from indigo dye-bearing plants, primarily those in the genus Indigofera, which are native to the tropics. The primary commercial indigo species in Asia was true indigo (Indigofera tinctoria). India is believed to be the oldest center of indigo dyeing in the Old World. It was a primary supplier of indigo dye to Europe as early as the Greco-Roman era. The association of India with indigo is reflected in the Greek word for the dye, which was indikon (??????? ). The Romans used the term indicum, which passed into Italian dialect and eventually into English as the word indigo. 38] In Central and South America, the important blue dyes were Anil (Indigofera suffruticosa) and Natal indigo (Indigofera arrecta). [38][39] In temperate climates including Europe, indigo was obtained primarily from woad (Isatis tinctoria), an indigenous plan of Assyria and the Levant which has been grown in Northern Europe over 2,000 years, although from the 18th century it was mostly replaced by superior Indian indigo imported by the British East India Company. Woad was carried to New England in the 17th century and used extensively in America until native stands of indigo were discovered in Florida and the Carolinas.

In Sumatra, indigo dye is extracted from some species of Marsdenia. Other indigo-bearing dye plants include dyer’s knotweed (Polygonum tinctorum) from Japan and the coasts of China, and the West African shrub Lonchocarpus cyanescens. [38][40] [edit] Purples In medieval Europe, purple, violet, murrey and similar colors were produced by dyeing wool with woad or indigo in the fleece and then piece-dyeing the woven cloth with red dyes, either the common madder or the luxury dyes kermes and cochineal. Madder could also produce purples when used with alum.

Brazilwood also gave purple shades with vitriol (sulfuric acid) or potash. [41] Choctaw artists traditionally used maple (Acer sp. ) to create lavender and purple dyes. [24] Purples can also be derived from lichens, and from the berries of White Bryony from the northern Rocky Mountain states and mulberry (morus nigra) (with an acid mordant). [42] [edit] Browns Cutch is an ancient brown dye from the wood of acacia trees, particularly Acacia catechu, used in India for dyeing cotton. Cutch gives gray-browns with an iron mordant and olive-browns with copper. 43] Black walnut (Juglans nigra) is used by Cherokee artists to produce a deep brown approaching black. [23] Today black walnut is primarily used to dye baskets but has been used in the past for fabrics and deerhide. Juniper, Juniperus monosperma, ashes provide brown and yellow dyes for Navajo people,[26] as do the hulls of wild walnuts (Juglans major). [44] [edit] Greys and blacks Choctaw dyers use maple (Acer sp. ) for a grey dye. [24] Navajo weavers create black from mineral yellow ochre mixed with pitch from the pinon tree (Pinus edulis) and the three-leaved sumac (Rhus trilobata). 26] They also produce a cool grey dye with blue flower lupine and a warm grey from Juniper mistletoe (Phoradendron juniperinum). [29] [edit] Lichen Dye-bearing lichen produce a wide range of greens,[37] oranges, yellows, reds, browns, and bright pinks and purples. The lichen Rocella tinctoria was found along the Mediterranean Sea and was used by the ancient Phoenicians. In recent times, lichen dyes have been an important part of the dye traditions of Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and among native peoples of the southwest and Intermontane Plateaus of the United States. 37] Scottish lichen dyes include cudbear (also called archil in England and litmus in Holland), and crottle. [45] [edit] Fungi Miriam C. Rice, (1918—2010) of Mendocino, California, pioneered research into using various mushrooms for natural dyes. She discovered mushroom dyes for a complete rainbow palette. Swedish and American mycologists, building upon Rice’s research, have discovered sources for true blues (Sarcodon squamosus) and mossy greens (Hydnellum geogenium). [46] Hypholoma fasciculare provides a yellow dye, and fungi such as Phaeolus schweinitzii and Pisolithus tinctorius are used in dying textiles and paper. 47] [edit] Luxury dyestuffs Byzantine Emperor Justinian I clad in Tyrian purple, 6th-century mosaic at Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy From the second millennium BCE to the 19th century, a succession of rare and expensive natural dyestuffs came in and out of fashion in the ancient world and then in Europe. In many cases the cost of these dyes far exceeded the cost of the wools and silks they colored, and often only the finest grades of fabrics were considered worthy of the best dyes. [edit] Royal purple

The premier luxury dye of the ancient world was Tyrian purple or royal purple, a purple-red dye which is extracted from several genera of sea snails, primarily the spiny dye-murex Murex brandaris (currently known as Bolinus brandaris). Murex dye was greatly prized in antiquity because it did not fade, but instead became brighter and more intense with weathering and sunlight. Murex dyeing may have been developed first by the Minoans of East Crete or the West Semites along the Levantine coast, and heaps of crushed murex shells have been discovered at a number of locations along the eastern Mediterranean dated to the mid-2nd millennium BCE.

The classical dye known as Phoenician Red was also derived from murex snails. [48] Murex dyes were fabulously expensive – one snail yields but a single drop of dye – and the Roman Empire imposed a strict monopoly on their use from the reign of Alexander Severus (225–235 CE) that was maintained by the succeeding Byzantine Empire until the Early Middle Ages. [49] The dye was used for imperial manuscripts on purple parchment, often with text in silver or gold, and porphyrogenitos or “born in the purple” was a term for Byzantine offspring of a reigning Emperor.

The color matched the increasing rare purple rock porphyry, also associated with the imperial family. [edit] Crimson and scarlet Tyrian purple retained its place as the premium dye of Europe until it was replaced “in status and desirability”[50] by the rich crimson reds and scarlets of the new silk-weaving centers of Italy, colored with kermes. Kermes is extracted from the dried unlayed eggs of the insect Kermes vermilio or Kermococcus vermilio found on species of oak (especially the Kermes oak of the Mediterranean region).

The dye is of ancient origin; jars of kermes have been found in a Neolithic cave-burial at Adaoutse, Bouches-du-Rhone. [51] Similar dyes are extracted from the related insects Porphyrophora hamili of the Caucasus region, Coccus polonicus (Polish cochineal or Saint John’s blood) of Eastern Europe, and the lac-producing insects of India, Southeast Asia, China, and Tibet. [52][53][54] When kermes-dyed textiles achieved prominence around the mid-11th century, the dyestuff was called “grain” in all Western European languages because the desiccated eggs resemble fine grains of wheat or sand. 49] Textiles dyed with kermes were described as dyed in the grain. [53] Woollens were frequently dyed in the fleece with woad and then piece-dyed in kermes, producing a wide range colors from from blacks and grays through browns, murreys, purples, and sanguines. [53] By the 14th and early 15th century, brilliant full grain kermes scarlet was “by far the most esteemed, most regal” color for luxury woollen textiles in the Low Countries, England, France, Spain and Italy. 49] Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) is a scale insect of Central and North America from which the crimson-coloured dye carmine is derived. It was used by the Aztec and Maya peoples. Moctezuma in the 15th century collected tribute in the form of bags of cochineal dye. [55] Soon after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire cochineal began to be exported to Spain, and by the seventeenth century it was a commodity traded as far away as India.

During the colonial period the production of cochineal (in Spanish, grana fina) grew rapidly. Produced almost exclusively in Oaxaca by indigenous producers, cochineal became Mexico’s second most valued export after silver. [56] Cochineal produces purplish colors alone and brilliant scarlets when mordanted with tin, and cochineal, which produced a stronger dye and could thus be used in smaller quantities, replaced kermes dyes in general use in Europe from the 17th century. [57][58] [edit] The rise of formal black

During the course of the 15th century, the civic records show brilliant reds falling out of fashion for civic and high-status garments in the Duchy of Burgundy in favor of dark blues, greens, and most importantly of all, black. [59][60] The origins of the trend for somber colors are elusive, but are generally attributed to the growing influence of Spain and possibly the importation of Spanish merino wools. The trend spread in the next century: the Low Countries, German states, Scandinavia, England, France, and Italy all absorbed the sobering and formal influence of Spanish dress after the mid-1520s. 60][61] Producing fast black in the Middle Ages was a complicated process involving multiple dyeings with woad or indigo followed by mordanting, but at the dawn of Early Modern period, a new and superior method of dyeing black dye reached Europe via Spanish conquests in the New World. The new method used logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum), a dyewood native to Mexico and Central America. Although logwood was poorly received at first, producing a blue inferior to that of woad and indigo, it was discovered to produce a fast black in combination with a ferrous sulfate (copperas) mordant. 50][60] Despite changing fashions in color, logwood was the most widely used dye by the 19th century, providing the sober blacks of formal and mourning clothes. [50] [edit] Decline and rediscovery Indigo-dyed and discharge-printed textile, William Morris, 1873 The first synthetic dyes were discovered in the mid-19th century, starting with William Henry Perkin’s mauveine in 1856, an aniline dye derived from coal tar. [62] Alizarin, the red dye present in madder, was the first natural igment to be duplicated synthetically, in 1869,[63] leading to the collapse of the market for naturally grown madder. [64] The development of new, strongly colored aniline dyes followed quickly: a range of reddish-purples, blues, violets, greens and reds became available by 1880. These dyes had great affinity for animal fibers such as wool and silk. The new colors tended to fade and wash out, but they were inexpensive and could be produced in the vast quantities required by textile production in the industrial revolution.

By the 1870s commercial dyeing wth natural dyestuffs was fast disappearing. [62] At the same time the Pre-Raphaelite artist and founding figure of the Arts and Crafts movement William Morris took up the art of dyeing as an adjunct to his manufacturing business, the design firm of Morris & Co. Always a medievalist at heart, Morris loathed the colors produced by the fashionable aniline dyes. He spent much of his time at his Staffordshire dye works mastering the processes of dyeing with plant materials and making experiments in the revival of old or discovery of new methods.

One result of these experiments was to reinstate indigo dyeing as a practical industry and generally to renew the use of natural dyes like madder which had been driven almost out of use by the commercial success of the anilines. Morris saw dyeing of wools, silks, and cottons as the necessary preliminary to the production of woven and printed fabrics of the highest excellence; and his period of incessant work at the dye-vat (1875–76) was followed by a period during which he was absorbed in the production of textiles (1877–78), and more especially in the revival of carpet- and tapestry-weaving as fine arts. Morris & Co. lso provided naturally dyed silks for the embroidery style called art needlework. [65][66] Scientists continued to search for new synthetic dyes that would be effective on cellulose fibers like cotton and linen, and that would be more colorfast on wool and silk than the early anilines. Chrome or mordant dyes produced a muted but very fast color range for woollens. These were followed by acid dyes for animal fibers (from 1875) and the synthesis of indigo in Germany in 1880. The work on indigo led to the development of a new class of dyes called vat dyes in 1901 that produced a wide range of fast colors for vegetable fibers. 67] Disperse dyes were introduced in 1923 to color the new textiles of cellulose acetate, which could not be colored with any existing dyes. Today disperse dyes are the only effective means of coloring many synthetics. Reactive dyes for both wool and cotton were introduced in the mid-1950s, and are used both in commercial textile production and in craft dyeing. [67] In America, synthetic dyes became popular among a wide range of Native American textile artists; however, natural dyes remained in use, as many textile collectors prefer natural dyes over synthetics.

Today, dyeing with natural materials is often practiced as an adjunct to hand spinning, knitting and weaving. [68] It remains a living craft in many traditional cultures of North America, Africa, Asia, and the Scottish Highlands. [69] Cyanidin is a natural organic compound. It is a particular type of anthocyanidin (not to be confused with anthocyanins which are glycosides of anthocyanidins). It is a pigment found in many redberries including but not limited to grapes, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, elderberry, hawthorn, loganberry, acai berry and raspberry. 1] It can also be found in other fruits such as apples and plums. It is also found in red cabbage and red onion. It has a characteristic reddish-orange color, though this can change with pH; solutions of the compound are red at pH < 3, violet at pH 7-8, and blue at pH > 11. The highest concentrations of cyanidin are found in the skin of the fruit. [edit] Effects on the human body Cyanidin, like other anthocyanidins, has putative antioxidant and radical-scavenging effects which may protect cells from oxidative damage and reduce risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer.

One theory is that dietary intake of cyanidins may inhibit development of obesity and diabetes as well as contain inflammatory mechanisms. [2] Other studies have generally shown that the glucoside derivative of cyanidin may have a role in cancer therapy. [3][4][5] [edit] List of cyanidin derivates * Antirrhinin (cyanidin-3-rutinoside or 3-C-R) * cyanidin 3-O, found in red onion * cyanidin 7-O, found in red onion * cyanidin 3,4? -di-O-? -glucopyranoside, found in red onion * cyanidin 4? -O-? -glucoside, found in red onion Chrysontemin (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside) found in blackcurrant pomace [edit] References 1. ^ *Cyanidin at phytochemicals. info 2. ^ Sasaki R, Nishimura N, Hoshino H, Isa Y, Kadowaki M, Ichi T, Tanaka A, Nishiumi S, Fukuda I, Ashida H, Horio F, Tsuda T. Cyanidin 3-glucoside ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity due to downregulation of retinol binding protein 4 expression in diabetic mice. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Dec 3;74(11):1619-27. [1] 3. ^ Fimognari C, Berti F, Nusse M, Cantelli Forti G, Hrelia P (2005). “In vitro antitumor activity of cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside”.

Chemotherapy 51 (6): 332–5. doi:10. 1159/000088956. PMID 16224184. 4. ^ Chen PN, Chu SC, Chiou HL, Kuo WH, Chiang CL, Hsieh YS (2006). “Mulberry anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside, exhibited an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of a human lung cancer cell line”. Cancer Lett. 235 (2): 248–59. doi:10. 1016/j. canlet. 2005. 04. 033. PMID 15975709. 5. ^ Tulio AZ Jr, Reese RN, Wyzgoski FJ, Rinaldi PL, Fu R, Scheerens JC, Miller AR. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside as primary phenolic antioxidants in black raspberry.

J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Mar 26;56(6):1880-8. [2] vvvvvvvv Crimson| — Color coordinates —| Hex triplet| #DC143C| RGBB| (r, g, b)| (220, 20, 60)| HSV| (h, s, v)| (348°, 91%, 86[1]%)| Source| X11| B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)| | Crimson is a strong, bright, deep red color. It is originally the color of the dye produced from a scale insect, Kermes vermilio, but the name is now also used as a generic term for those slightly bluish-red colors that are between red and rose; besides crimson itself, these colors include carmine, raspberry, ruddy, ruby, amaranth, and cerise.

Contents[hide] * 1 History * 2 Etymology * 3 Dyes * 4 Alizarin crimson * 5 Electric crimson * 6 Folly * 7 Razzmatazz * 8 KU Crimson * 9 Utah crimson * 10 Harvard crimson * 11 Crimson glory * 12 OU Crimson * 13 Crimson in nature * 14 In popular culture * 14. 1 Comic books * 14. 2 Computer and video games * 14. 3 Movies * 14. 4 Cultural references * 14. 5 Emblem colors * 14. 6 Literature * 14. 7 Military * 14. 8 Music * 14. 9 Toys * 15 See also * 16 References| [edit] History

Crimson (NR4) was produced using the dried bodies of the kermes insect, which were gathered commercially in Mediterranean countries, where they live on the Kermes oak, and sold throughout Europe. [2] Kermes dyes have been found in burial wrappings in Anglo-Scandinavian York. They fell out of use with the introduction of cochineal, because although the dyes were comparable in quality and color intensity it needed ten to twelve times as much kermes to produce the same effect as cochineal. Carmine is the name given to the dye made from the dried bodies of the female cochineal, although the name crimson is sometimes applied to these dyes too.

Cochineal appears to have been discovered during the conquest of Mexico by the Spaniard Hernan Cortes, and the name ‘carmine’ is derived from the Spanish word for crimson. It was first described by Mathioli in 1549. The pigment is also called cochineal after the insect from which it is made. Alizarin (PR83) is a pigment that was first synthesized in 1868 by the German chemists Carl Grabe and Carl Liebermann and replaced the natural pigment madder lake. Alizarin crimson is a dye bonded onto alum which is then used as a pigment and mixed with ochre, sienna and umber. It is not totally colorfast. edit] Etymology The word crimson has been recorded in English since 1400,[3] and its earlier forms include cremesin, crymysyn and cramoysin (cf. cramoisy, a crimson cloth). These were adapted via Old Spanish from the Medieval Latin cremesinus (also kermesinus or carmesinus), the dye produced from Kermes scale insects, and can be traced back to Arabic – Persian qermez (“red”), also borrowed in Turkish k? rm? z? and many other languages, e. g. German Karmesin, Italian Cremisi, French cramoisi, etc. (via Latin). The ultimate source may be Sanskrit ????? k? mi-ja meaning “worm-made”. 4] A shortened form of carmesinus also gave the Latin carminus, from which comes carmine. Other cognates include the Old Church Slavic cruminu and the Russian cermnyj “red”. Cf. also vermilion. [edit] Dyes Main article: Carmine Main article: Kermes (dye) Carminic acid Carmine dyes, which give crimson and related red and purple colors, are based on an aluminium and calcium salt of carminic acid. Carmine lake is an aluminium or aluminium-tin lake of cochineal extract, and Crimson lake is prepared by striking down an infusion of cochineal with a 5 percent solution of alum and cream of tartar.

Purple lake is prepared like carmine lake with the addition of lime to produce the deep purple tone. Carmine dyes tend to fade quickly. Carmine dyes were once widely prized in both the Americas and in Europe. They were used in paints by Michelangelo and for the crimson fabrics of the Hussars, the Turks, the British Redcoats, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Nowadays carmine dyes are used for coloring foodstuffs, medicines and cosmetics. As a food additive, carmine dyes are designated E120, and are also called cochineal and Natural Red 4.

Carmine dyes are also used in some oil paints and watercolors used by artists. [edit] Alizarin crimson Main article: Alizarin crimson (color) Alizarin Crimson| — Color coordinates —| Hex triplet| #E32636| RGBB| (r, g, b)| (227, 38, 54)| HSV| (h, s, v)| (348°, 90%, 77%)| Source| [Unsourced]| B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)| | The shade of red on the infobox to the right is alizarin crimson. This is an artificially created color, used to replace the harder to obtain rose madder. [edit] Electric crimson Electric Crimson| — Color coordinates —| Hex triplet| #FF003F| RGBB| (r, g, b)| (255, 0, 63)|

HSV| (h, s, v)| (345°, 100%, 100[5]%)| Source| HTML Color Chart @345| B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)| | Displayed at right is the color electric crimson. Electric crimson is that tone of crimson which is precisely halfway between red and rose on the color wheel (RGB color wheel). [edit] Folly Folly| — Color coordinates —| Hex triplet| #FF004F| RGBB| (r, g, b)| (255, 0, 79)| HSV| (h, s, v)| (341°, 100%, 100[6]%)| Source| Maerz and Paul| B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)| | Displayed at right is the color folly. Folly is a color one-fourth of the way between crimson and rose, closer to crimson than to rose.

The first recorded use of folly as a color name in English was in 1920. [7] [edit] Razzmatazz Razzmatazz| — Color coordinates —| Hex triplet| #E3256B| RGBB| (r, g, b)| (227, 37, 107)| HSV| (h, s, v)| (338°, 84%, 89[8]%)| Source| Crayola| B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)| | Displayed at right is the color razzmatazz. This color is a rich tone of crimson-rose. Razzmatazz was a new Crayola crayon color chosen in 1993 as a part of the Name The New Colors Contest. [edit] KU Crimson KU Crimson| — Color coordinates —| Hex triplet| #E8000D| RGBB| (r, g, b)| (232, 0, 13)| Source| KU Visual Identity|

B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)| | KU Crimson, along with Blue, is an official color for the University of Kansas and its athletic teams, the Kansas Jayhawks. The color is referenced in the school’s alma mater. [9] While not an original color of the school, Crimson was suggested to honor a Harvard graduate who donated money for an athletic field at the school. [10] [edit] Utah crimson Logo of the University of Utah Utah Crimson| — Color coordinates —| Hex triplet| #D3003F| RGBB| (r, g, b)| (211, 0, 63)| HSV| (h, s, v)| (342°, 100%, 82. 7[11]%)| Source| Internet|

B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)| | Displayed at right is the color Utah crimson, the color which is symbolic of the University of Utah. Of all the universities that list crimson as an official color, the University of Utah is closest to the web color crimson (RGB 220, 20, 60). The school’s athletic booster organization is called the Crimson Club. [12] [edit] Harvard crimson Logo of Harvard University Harvard Crimson| — Color coordinates —| Hex triplet| #C90016| RGBB| (r, g, b)| (201, 0, 22)| HSV| (h, s, v)| (353°, 100%, 79[13]%)| Source| Internet| B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)| Displayed at right is the color Harvard crimson, the color which is symbolic of Harvard University. The first recorded use of Harvard crimson as a color name in English was in 1928. [14] [edit] Crimson glory The ornamental grape crimson glory vine autumn colors Crimson Glory| — Color coordinates —| Hex triplet| #BE0032| RGBB| (r, g, b)| (190, 0, 50)| Source| Plochere| B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)| | The color crimson glory is displayed at right. It is a medium shade of crimson. The color is a representation of the color of the flowers of the Crimson Glory Vine.

The first use of crimson glory as a color name in English was in 1948 when the Plochere Color System was inaugurated. The source of the color name crimson glory is the Plochere Color System, a color system formulated in 1948 that is widely used by interior designers. [15] [edit] OU Crimson OU Crimson| — Color coordinates —| Hex triplet| #990000| RGBB| (r, g, b)| (153, 0, 0)| Source| Official Logos| B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)| | OU Crimson, along with Cream, are the official colors for The University of Oklahoma, and its athletic teams, the Oklahoma Sooners.

In the fall of 1895, Miss May Overstreet was asked to chair a committee to select the colors of the university. The committee decided the colors should be crimson and cream and an elaborate display of the colors was draped above a platform before the student body. [16] OU Crimson is also an official color for the National Weather Center. [17] [edit] Crimson in nature Birds * The Crimson Sunbird is the national bird of Singapore. * The coxscomb of a rooster is colored a deep crimson color. [edit] In popular culture | This “In popular culture” section may contain minor or trivial references.

Please reorganize this content to explain the subject’s impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances, and remove trivial references. (July 2010)| [edit] Comic books * The Crimson Dynamo is the name of several fictional characters in the Marvel Comics Universe, most of whom have been supervillains. The various Crimson Dynamos have been powered armor-wearing Russian or Soviet agents who have clashed with the superhero Iron Man over the course of his heroic career. [edit] Computer and video games * Crimson is a name given to Rosso in Dirge of Cerberus: Final Fantasy VII for her red outfit and bloodthirsty nature. Crimson Skies is a video game about air pirates in an alternate universe 1930s North America. * Fatal Frame II: Crimson Butterfly, or Project Zero II: Crimson Butterfly, 2004 game considered one of the scariest video games [edit] Movies * The Crimson Rivers (Les rivieres pourpres) is the title of a movie played by Jean Reno and Vincent Cassel. [edit] Cultural references * The King’s Royal Hussars still wear crimson trousers as successors to the 11th Hussars (the “Cherrypickers”). * In Polish, karmazyn (‘crimson’) is also a synonym for a Magnate, i. e. , a member of the nobility. [edit] Emblem colors The international non-profit Greek letter organizations Delta Sigma Theta Sorority (??? ), Incorporated, Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity (KA? ), Incorporated, and Kappa Alpha Order (KA) use crimson as one of their official colors. * Crimson is the school color of several universities, including Harvard University, Indiana University, New Mexico State University, Saint Joseph’s University, University of Alabama, University of Belgrano, University of Mississippi, University of Oklahoma, University of Utah, Washington State University, Korea University and Worcester Polytechnic Institute.

The daily newspaper at Harvard is called The Harvard Crimson, and the daily newspaper at Alabama is called The Crimson White. Harvard’s athletic teams are the Crimson, while the University of Alabama competes as The Crimson Tide. [edit] Literature * In fiction, the primary villain of Stephen King’s The Dark Tower series is the Crimson King. The Crimson King also makes appearances in other King works, such as the novel Insomnia. Bev Vincent notes in his The Road to the Dark Tower that the color is intended to symbolize sickness, madness, and pain. In the Star Trek universe, in the mirror universe, the Terran Empire has a flag that displays the symbol of the empire, a map of Earth with a dagger through it facing downward, rendered in gold on a field of crimson. By apparent analogy with the nickname Old Glory for the Flag of the United States in our universe, the flag of the Terran Empire is called by the nickname Crimson Glory. [18][19] [edit] Military * In the United States Army, crimson is the color of the Ordnance Corps. [edit] Music King Crimson has been a popular rock group since the debut in 1969 of their first album, In the Court of the Crimson King. * Crimson is the title of an album by the Swedish death metal band Edge of Sanity. They also made a follow-up to that album, entitled Crimson II. * Crimson is the title of an Alkaline Trio album. * Crimson Thunder the 2002 album of Swedish power metal band Hammerfall. * Dream Theater’s “A Change of Seasons”, the title track from their 1995 EP, opens with a movement entitled “The Crimson Sunrise”, and closes with the seventh movement, “The Crimson Sunset”. Kill to Get Crimson is the title of Mark Knopfler’s 5th solo album released in September, 2007. * Crimson and Clover is an album and song by Tommy James and the Shondells. * Behind Crimson Eyes is a rock band from Melbourne, Australia. * The Crimson Armada is a deathcore band from Westerville, Ohio, USA. * Crimson is a Sentenced album. * “The Crimson” is the name of a song by Atreyu (band). * Touched by the Crimson King is an album by Demons & Wizards * The Crimson Idol is a concept album by W. A. S. P * Guren is a song by The GazettE. Guren means Crimson in Japanese. Alazarin Crimson is one of the colors Donovan mentioned in his 1967 song Wear Your Love Like Heaven * Crimson Deep is a song by the Finnish soprano Tarja Turunen. * Crimson Winds is a song by Dark Tranquillity in their album Skydancer. * Crimson Towers is a song by Dissection in their album The Somberlain. * King in Crimson is a song by Bruce Dickinson in his album The Chemical Wedding vvvvvvvCurcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). The other two curcuminoids are desmethoxycurcumin and bis-desmethoxycurcumin.

The curcuminoids are natural phenols and are responsible for the yellow color of turmeric. Curcumin can exist in at least two tautomeric forms, keto and enol. The enol form is more energetically stable in the solid phase and in solution. [1] Curcumin can be used for boron quantification in the curcumin method. It reacts with boric acid forming a red colored compound, known as rosocyanine. Curcumin is brightly yellow colored and may be used as a food coloring. As a food additive, its E number is E100. [2] Curcumin Keto form Curcumin Enol form Curcumin

Contents[hide] * 1 Chemistry * 2 Biosynthesis * 3 Potential medical uses * 3. 1 Anticarcinogenic effects * 4 Bioavailability * 5 Potential risks and side effects * 6 References * 7 External links| [edit] Chemistry Curcumin incorporates several functional groups. The aromatic ring systems, which are polyphenols are connected by two ? ,? -unsaturated carbonyl groups. The diketones form stable enols or are easily deprotonated and form enolates, while the ? ,? -unsaturated carbonyl is a good Michael acceptor and undergoes nucleophilic addition.

The structure was first identified in 1910 by J. Milobedzka, Stanislaw Kostanecki and Wiktor Lampe. [3] Curcumin is used as a reagent for boron in EPA Method 212. 3. [4] [edit] Biosynthesis The biosynthetic route of curcumin has proven to be very difficult for researchers to determine. In 1973 Roughly and Whiting proposed two mechanisms for curcumin biosynthesis. The first mechanism involved a chain extension reaction by cinnamic acid and 5 malonyl-CoA molecules that eventually arylized into a curcuminoid. The second mechanism involved two cinnamate units being coupled together by malonyl-CoA.

Both mechanisms use cinnamic acid as their starting point, which is derived from the amino acid phenylalanine. This is noteworthy because plant biosyntheses employing cinnamic acid as a starting point are rare compared to the more common use of p-coumaric acid. [5] Only a few identified compounds, such as anigorufone[6] and pinosylvin,[7] use cinnamic acid as their start molecule. An experimentally backed route was not presented until 2008. This proposed biosynthetic route follows both the first and second mechanisms suggested by Roughley and Whiting.

However, the labeling data supported the first mechanism model in which 5 malonyl-CoA molecules react with cinnamic acid to form curcumin. [5] However, the sequencing in which the functional groups, the alcohol and the methoxy, introduce themselves onto the curcuminoid seems to support more strongly the second proposed mechanism. [5] Therefore, it was concluded the second pathway proposed by Roughly and Whiting was correct. [edit] Potential medical uses Turmeric has been used historically as a component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine since 1900 BC to treat a wide variety of ailments. 8] Research in the latter half of the 20th century has identified curcumin as responsible for most of the biological activity of turmeric. [8] In vitro and animal studies have suggested a wide range of potential therapeutic or preventive effects associated with curcumin. At present, these effects have not been confirmed in humans. However, as of 2008, numerous clinical trials in humans were underway, studying the effect of curcumin on various diseases, including multiple myeloma, pancreatic cancer, myelodysplastic syndromes, colon cancer, psoriasis, and Alzheimer’s disease. 9] In vitro and animal studies have suggested curcumin may have antitumor,[10][11] antioxidant, antiarthritic, antiamyloid, anti-ischemic,[12] and anti-inflammatory properties. [13] Anti-inflammatory properties may be due to inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis. [14] In addition it may be effective in treating malaria, prevention of cervical cancer, and may interfere with the replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). [15] In HIV, it appears to act by interfering with P300/CREB-binding protein (CBP). It is also hepatoprotective. 16] A 2008 study at Michigan State University showed low concentrations of curcumin interfere with Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) replication. [17] The same study showed curcumin inhibited the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to viral DNA, thus inhibiting its transcription. [17] This effect was shown to be independent of effect on histone acetyltransferase activities of p300/CBP. [17] A previous (1999) study performed at University of Cincinnati indicated curcumin is significantly associated with protection from infection by HSV-2 in animal models of intravaginal infections. 18] Curcumin acts as a free radical scavenger and antioxidant, inhibiting lipid peroxidation[19] and oxidative DNA damage. Curcuminoids induce glutathione S-transferase and are potent inhibitors of cytochrome P450. A 2004 UCLA-Veterans Affairs study involving genetically altered mice suggested curcumin might inhibit the accumulation of destructive beta-amyloid in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease patients, and might also break up existing plaques associated with the disease. 20] There is also circumstantial evidence curcumin improves mental functions; a survey of 1010 Asian people who ate yellow curry and were between the ages of 60 and 93 showed those who ate the sauce “once every six months” or more had higher MMSE results than those who did not. [21] From a scientific standpoint, though, this does not show whether the curry caused it, or people who had healthy habits also tended to eat the curry, or some completely different relationship.

Numerous studies have demonstrated curcumin, amongst only a few other things, such as high impact exercise, learning, bright light, and antidepressant usage, has a positive effect on neurogenesis in the hippocampus and concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), reductions in both of which are associated with stress, depression, and anxiety. [22][23][24] Curcumin has also been demonstrated to be a selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of type MAO-A.

Fluorescent imaging in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease showed that curcumin crosses the blood-brain barrier. [25] A recent BBC report stated that curcumin cannot cross the blood-brain barrier without giving the primary source. [26] In 2009, an Iranian group demonstrated the combination effect of curcumin with 24 antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus. In that study, in the presence of a subinhibitory concentration of curcumin, the antibacterial activities of cefixime, cefotaxime, vancomycin and tetracycline were increased against test strain.

The increase in inhibition zone surface area for these antibiotics were 52. 6% (cefixime), 24. 9% (cephotaxime), 26. 5% (vancomycin ) and 24. 4% (tetracycline). Also it showed curcumin has an antagonist effect on the antibacterial effect of nalidixic acid against the test strain. [27] Although many preclinical studies suggest curcumin may be useful for the prevention and treatment of several diseases, the effectiveness of curcumin has not yet been demonstrated in randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials. 28] From 2010 to 2011, scientists at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center have created a new molecule from curcumin, a chemical component turmeric, and have found, in laboratory experiments, that the molecule affects mechanisms that protect and help regenerate brain cells after a stroke. [29][30] [edit] Anticarcinogenic effects Its potential anticancer effects stem from its ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells without cytotoxic effects on healthy cells. Curcumin can interfere with the activity of the transcription factor NF-? B, which has been linked to a number of inflammatory diseases such as cancer. 31] A 2009 study suggested curcumin may inhibit mTOR complex I via a novel mechanism. [32] Another 2009 study on curcumin effects on cancer states it “modulates growth of tumor cells through regulation of multiple cell signaling pathways including cell proliferation pathway (cyclin D1, c-myc), cell survival pathway (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, cFLIP, XIAP, c-IAP1), caspase activation pathway (caspase-8, 3, 9), tumor suppressor pathway (p53, p21) death receptor pathway (DR4, DR5), mitochondrial pathways, and protein kinase pathway (JNK, Akt, and AMPK)”. 33] A 2010 study in malignant brain tumors showed curcumin effectively inhibits tumor cell proliferation, as well as migration and invasion, and these effects may be mediated through interference with the STAT3 signaling pathway. [34] When 0. 2% curcumin is added to diet given to rats or mice previously given a carcinogen, it significantly reduces colon carcinogenesis. [35] Curcumin has recently been shown to have phyto-estrogenic activity that might contribute to activity against breast cancer. 36] In the murine model of breast cancer metastasis, curcumin inhibits the formation of lung metastases [37] probably through the NF-kappa-B dependent regulation of protumorigenic inflammatory cytokines. [38] [edit] Bioavailability Little curcumin, when eaten, is absorbed:[39] from 2 to 10 grams of curcumin eaten alone resulted in undetectable to very low serum levels. [40] Curcumin is unstable in the gut,[41] and the traces that pass through the GI tract rapidly degrade or are conjugated through glucuronidation.

There have been several commercial products developed to provide an alternate route to curcumin. For example, curcumin supplements with piperine are readily available. But curcumin in a non-solubilized pill form can limit bioavailability. Other products, such as Nutmeric,[42] provide curcumin in an oil-solubilized form similar to Indian curry preparations. Co-supplementation with 20 mg of piperine (extracted from black pepper) significantly increased the absorption of curcumin by 2000% in a study funded by a prominent manufacturer of piperine. 40] However, the increase in absorption only occurred during the first hour, after which the difference between the piperine curcumin and the regular curcumin was almost the same as far as absorption. Due to its effects on drug metabolism, piperine should be taken cautiously (if at all) by individuals taking other medications. Another curcumin proprietary formulation, (BCM-95®) mixed with turmeric oils, was shown in human cross-over bioavailability comparison tests to have 8 times the bioavailability and greater blood retention time than standard 95% and up to 5 times more than curcumin combined with lecithin and piperine. 43] This same formula was also shown to remain above 200 ng/g for 12 hours in a human clinical study. Plain curcumin remained above 200 ng/g for less than 2 hours. Two hours after ingestion, BCM-95 levels where 10-fold over that of plain curcumin. [44] While further research will determine more definite outcomes, in a six-month placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial, individuals in the BCM-95 groups (receiving either 1 g or 4 g) saw reduced oxidative stress and improved antioxidant status. There were more adverse effects in the placebo group than in either 1 g or 4 g BCM-95 group.

There was a noted increase in serum amyloid beta in both 1 g and 4 g groups, but not placebo. The authors noted this “possibly reflected an ability of curcumin to disaggregate amyloid beta deposits in the brain, releasing the amyloid beta for circulation and disposal. ”[45] Some benefits of curcumin, such as the potential protection from colon cancer, may not require systemic absorption. Alternatively, dissolving curcumin in hot water or in warm oils prior to ingestion may possibly increase bioavailability; however, no published studies to date have documented this.

Cooking with curcumin and oil may increase absorption, but peer-reviewed scientific literature has not documented this, while the literature has documented concerns regarding the heat stability of curcumin and its degradation in the gut. [citation needed] In 2007, a polymeric nanoparticle-encapsulated formulation of curcumin (“nanocurcumin”[46]) has been synthesized which has the potential to bypass many of the shortcomings associated with free curcumin, such as poor solubility and poor systemic bioavailability.

Nanocurcumin particles have a size of less than 100 nanometers on average, and demonstrate comparable to superior efficacy compared to free curcumin in human cancer cell line models. [46] However, actual in vivo absorption has not been demonstrated with this nanoparticle. In July 2008, researchers from the aforementioned team in UCLA’s Department of Neurology announced results on a form of “lipidated curcumin” that was noted to achieve more than 5 micromolar in the brain in vivo, 50 times that found in clinical studies. 47] Another method to increase the bioavailability of curcumin was filed in a patent in 2006[48] and involves a simple procedure creating a complex with soy phospholipids; the plasma concentration of free curcumin and curcumin glucuronide using this method increased by 5-fold and by 20-fold, free curcumin reaching 33. 4 nanomolar in comparison to 6. 5 and curcumin glucuronide reaching 4,420 in comparison to 225 nanomolar obtained with an equal molar quantity of unformulated curcumin administered as control. 49] In the year of 2010, a food-grade polymer micellar encapsulation system was shown to increase curcumin’s water solubility and in vitro anti-cancer activity. It was found that hydrophobically modified starch, usually used to encapsulate flavors, was able to form polymer micelles. Using a simple high-speed homogenization method, it can load curcumin into its hydrophobic core, and thus solubilize curcumin. Cell culture experiments revealed an enhanced anti-cancer activity on HepG2 cell line. However, more in vivo studies are needed to further prove its efficacy in the aspect of bioavailability. 50] [edit] Potential risks and side effects Kawanishi et al. (2005) remarked that curcumin, like many antioxidants, can be a “double-edged sword” where, in the test tube, anticancer and antioxidant effects may be seen in addition to pro-oxidant effects. [51] Carcinogenic effects are inferred from interference with the p53 tumor suppressor pathway, an important factor in human colon cancer. [52] Carcinogenic and LD50 tests in mice and rats, however, have failed to establish a relationship between tumorogenesis and administration of curcumin in turmeric oleoresin at >98% concentrations. 53] Other in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that curcumin may cause carcinogenic effects under specific conditions. [54][55] Clinical studies in humans with high doses (2–12 grams) of curcumin have shown few side effects, with some subjects reporting mild nausea or diarrhea. [56] More recently, curcumin was found to alter iron metabolism by chelating iron and suppressing the protein hepcidin, potentially causing iron deficiency in susceptible patients. [57] Further studies seem to be necessary to establish the benefit/risk profile of curcumin. 58] There is no or little evidence to suggest curcumin is either safe or unsafe for pregnant women. However, there is still some concern medicinal use of products containing curcumin could stimulate the uterus, which may lead to a miscarriage, although there is not much evidence to support this claim. According to experiments done on rats and guinea pigs, there is no obvious effect (neither positive, nor negative) on the pregnancy rate or number of live or dead embryos. [59] Curcumin has embryotoxic and teratogenic effects on zebrafishes (Danio rerio) embryos. 60] [edit] References “Meadowsweet” redirects here. For other uses, see Meadowsweet (disambiguation). Meadowsweet| | Scientific classification| Kingdom:| Plantae| (unranked):| Angiosperms| (unranked):| Eudicots| Order:| Rosales| Family:| Rosaceae| Genus:| Filipendula| Species:| F. ulmaria| Binomial name| Filipendula ulmaria (L. ) Maxim. | Filipendula ulmaria, commonly known as Meadowsweet, is a perennial herb in the family Rosaceae, which grows in damp meadows. It is native throughout most of Europe and Western Asia. It has been introduced and naturalized in North America.

Juncus subnodulosus-Cirsium palustre fen-meadow plant associations of Western Europe consistently include this plant. [1] Meadowsweet has also been referred to as Queen of the Meadow, Pride of the Meadow, Meadow-Wort, Meadow Queen, Lady of the Meadow, Dollof, Meadsweet and Bridewort. Contents[hide] * 1 Description * 2 Herbal and pharmacological * 3 History and etymology * 4 Popular culture * 5 References * 6 External links| [edit] Description The Meadowsweet Rust gall on leaf midrib The stems are 1–2 m (3–7 ft) tall, erect and furrowed, reddish to sometimes purple.

The leaves are dark green on the upper side and whitish and downy underneath, much divided, interruptedly pinnate, having a few large serrate leaflets and small intermediate ones. Terminal leaflets are large, 4–8 cm long and three to five-lobed. Meadowsweet has delicate, graceful, creamy-white flowers clustered close together in handsome irregularly-branched cymes, having a very strong, sweet smell. They flower from June to early September. Meadowsweet leaves are commonly galled by the bright orange rust fungus Triphragmium ulmariae which creates swellings and distortions on the stalk and / or midrib. edit] Herbal and pharmacological The whole herb possesses a pleasant taste and flavour, the green parts having a similar aromatic character to the flowers, leading to the use of the plant as a strewing herb, strewn on floors to give the rooms a pleasant aroma, and its use to flavour wine, beer and many vinegars. The flowers can be added to stewed fruit and jams, giving them a subtle almond flavor. It has many medicinal properties. The whole plant is a traditional remedy for an acidic stomach and the fresh root is often used in infinitesimal quantities in homeopathic preparations.

It is effective on its own as a treatment for diarrhea. The flowers, when made into a tea, are a comfort to flu sufferers. Dried, the flowers make lovely pot pourri. Active ingredients: compounds of salicylic acid, flavone-glycosides, essential oils and tannins. In 1897 Felix Hoffmann created a synthetically altered version of salicin, derived from the species, which caused less digestive upset than pure salicylic acid. The new drug, formally Acetylsalicylic acid, was named aspirin by Hoffman’s employer Bayer AG after the old botanical name for meadowsweet, Spiraea ulmaria.

This gave rise to the hugely important class of drugs known as NonSteroidal AntiInflammatory Drugs, or NSAIDs. This plant contains the chemicals used to make aspirin, a small section of root, when peeled and crushed smells like Germolene, and when chewed is a good natural remedy for relieving headaches. A natural black dye can be obtained from the roots by using a copper mordant. About one in five people with asthma has Samter’s triad,[2] in which aspirin induces asthma symptoms. Therefore, asthmatics should be aware of the possibility that meadowsweet, with its similar biochemistry, could theoretically also induce symptoms of asthma.

Wild meadowsweet in Wharfedale, near Conistone, North Yorkshire, England [edit] History and etymology White-flowered meadowsweet has been found with the cremated remains of three people and at least one animal in a Bronze Age cairn at Fan Foel, Carmarthenshire. Similar finds have also been found inside a Beaker from Ashgrove, Fife and a vessel from North Mains, Strathallan. These could possibly indicate honey-based mead or flavoured ale, or alternatively might suggest the plant being placed on the grave as a scented flower. 3] In Welsh Mythology, Gwydion and Math created a woman out of oak blossom, broom, and meadowsweet and named her Blodeuwedd (“flower face”). It is known by many other names, and in Chaucer’s The Knight’s Tale it is known as Meadwort and was one of the ingredients in a drink called “save. ” It was also known as Bridewort, because it was strewn in churches for festivals and weddings, and often made into bridal garlands. In Europe, it took its name “queen of the meadow” for the way it can dominate a low-lying, damp meadow.

In the 16th century, when it was customary to strew floors with rushes and herbs (both to give warmth underfoot and to overcome smells and infections), it was a favorite of Queen Elizabeth I. She desired it above all other herbs in her chambers. The name ulmaria means “elmlike”, an odd epithet as it does not resemble the elm (Ulmus) in any way. However, like slippery elm bark, the plant contains salicylic acid, which has long been used as a painkiller, and this may be the source of the name. However, the generic name, Filipendula, comes from filum, meaning “thread” and pendulus, meaning “hanging. This is possibly said to describe the root tubers that hang characteristically on the genus, on fibrous roots. [edit] Popular culture * A 2007 episode of the TV Series Supernatural (“A Very Supernatural Christmas”) featured Meadowsweet as a component of a pagan ritual. [edit] References 1. ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2009. Marsh Thistle: Cirsium palustre, GlobalTwitcher. com, ed. N. Stromberg [1] 2. ^ Jenkins C, Costello J, Hodge L. 2004 “Systematic review of prevalence of aspirin induced asthma and its implications for clinical practice. ” British Medical Journal 328(7437):434 Abstract 3. ^ M. Pitts (2006).

Meadowsweet flowers in prehistoric graves. British Archaeology 88 (May/June): 6 * Neltje Blanchan (2002). Wild Flowers: An Aid to Knowledge of our Wild Flowers and their Insect Visitors. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. [edit] External links vvvStil de grain yellow From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Stil de grain yellow| — Color coordinates —| Hex triplet| #FADA5E| RGBB| (r, g, b)| (250, 218, 94)| HSV| (h, s, v)| (48°, 62%, 98[1]%)| Source| ISCC NBS| B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)| | Stil de grain yellow is a pigment traditionally derived from unripe buckthorn berries.

It is also known as sap green, although in contemporary art supplies the term sap green often indicates a mixture intending to