Research Method-Pastyear 1. _____ is the application of the scientific method in searching for the truth about business phenomena. A. Induction. B. Application research. C. Business research. D. Science. 2. Which type of research tries to verify a theory or to learn more about a concept and is not intended to solve a particular business problem? A. Performance-monitoring research. B. Basic research. C. Total quality management. D. The scientific method. 3. Which of the following refers to the way researchers go about using knowledge and evidence to reach objective conclusions about the real world?
A. Qualitative method. B. Quantitative method. C. Scientific method. D. Primary method. 4. Job satisfaction, which is an employees’s general attitude toward his or her job, is an example of a(n): A. hypothesis. B. proposition. C. concept. D. abstraction. 5. “Employees dressed professionally will generate greater sales than those dressed casually” is an example of a: A. theory. B. proposition. C. hypothesis. D. variation. 6. _____ is the logical process of deriving a conclusion about a specific instance based on a known general premise or something known to be true. A.
Deductive reasoning B. Inductive reasoning C. Latent reasoning D. Abstract reasoning 7 . The process of identifying the actual measurement scales to assess the variables of interest is called ___. A. operationalizing B. synthesizing C. verifying D. conceptualizing 8. If all the trees a person has seen in his life have been green and therefore he concludes that all trees are green, which type of reasoning is he using? A. Deductive reasoning. B. Inductive reasoning. C. Generalized reasoning. D. Conceptual reasoning. 9. What is the FIRST step in the application of the scientific method?
A. Assessment of relevant existing knowledge of a phenomenon. B. Proposal of an explanation of the phenomenon and statement of new problems raised by the research. C. Design of research to test the hypothesis. D. Acquisition of meaningful empirical data. 10. All of the following are types of business research EXCEPT _____. A. exploratory B. selective C. descriptive D. causal 11. Which type of business research address who, what, when, where, why, and how questions? A. Causal research. B. Exploratory research. C. Descriptive research. D. Proscriptive research. 12.
What type of research is being conducted to answer the question: “Would this target market be interested in this type of new product? ” a. causal research b. exploratory research c. situation analysis research d. descriptive research 13. Which of the following is the first stage of the business research process? A. Planning a research design. B. Pefining the research objectives. C. Analyzing the data. D. Planning a sample. 14. Which of the following is a method of data collection that is used in surveys? A. Telephone. B. Mail. C. The Internet. D. All of the above. 15.
Something that does not change from one instance to another is called a: A. | hypothesis| B. | constant| C. | variable| D. | category| 16. Which of the following is the SECOND step of the problem definition process? A. | Determine the unit of analysis. | B. | Identify the problem from the symptoms| C. | Identify key symptoms in the situation. | D. | Determine the relevant variables. | 17. An interview technique that tries to draw deeper and more elaborate explanations from the discussion is called _________. A. | probing| B. | peeling| C. | immersion| D. | ethnography| 18.
In the statement: “Years of sales experience is an important variable in predicting unit sales performance,” what type of variable is “years of experience”? A. | dependent variable| B. | independent variable| C. | categorical variable. | D. | classificatory variable| 19. When a researcher determines what or who should provide the data and at what level of aggregation, he or she is determining the ________. A. | hypotheses| B. | research questions| C. | analysis technique| D. | unit of analysis| 20. What type of variable is “marital status” (single, married, widower)? A. | Continuous variable. | B. | Primary variable. C. | Dependent variable. | D. | Categorical variable. | 21. A statement such as: “If we increase price five percent, sales will likely drop eight percent or more,” is an example of a __________. A. | hypothesis| B. | dependent variable| C. | problem definition| D. | research objective| 22. The people who answer survey questions are referred to as ____. A. | researchers| B. | clients| C. | respondents| D. | users| 23. Which of the following can be the target of survey research techniques? A. | wholesalers| B. | employees| C. | consumers| D. | all of the above| 24. Systematic errors are also called ______.
A. | random sampling error| B. | interviewer error| C. | nonresponse error| D. | nonsampling errors| 25. Systematic error is divided into which two general categories? A. | respondent error and administrative error| B. | random sampling error and administrative error| C. | response bias and interview error| D. | primary error and secondary error| 26. When a respondent tells the interviewer that he reads The Wall Street Journal on a daily basis so that he can impress the interviewer, this is an example of _______. A. | interviewer bias| B. | auspices bias| C. | administrative bias| D. | acquiescence bias| 27.
Which term is sometimes used to refer to interviewers filling in responses for respondents that do not really exist? A. | Curb-stoning. | B. | Auspices bias. | C. | Sugging. | D. | Mere-measurement effect. | 28. A personal interview may be conducted in which of the following locations? A. | Respondent’s home. | B. | Shopping malls. | C. | Telephone. | D. | All of the above. | 29. Barbara received a phone call asking her to participate in a survey. She told the interviewer that she was too busy and could not participate. This is an example of: A. | random sampling error| B. | administrative error| C. | nonresponse error|
D. | interviewer error| 30. Interviews with respondents that take place in shopping malls are called ___. A. | pretesting| B. | mall intercept interviews| C. | the drop-off method of surveys| D. | mixed-mode surveys| 31. When an interviewer asks a respondent: “Why do you shop at TESCO? “, this is an example of a(n) A. | structured question| B. | disguised question| C. | unstructured question| D. | curb-stone question| 32. When an interviewer unintentionally and mistakenly checks the wrong response on a checklist during an interview, this is an example of: A. | interviewer cheating| B. | auspices bias| C. interviewer error| D. | social desirability bias| 33. Which of the following survey research methods is the most expensive? A. | Door-to-door personal interview. | B. | Mall intercept personal interview. | C. | Telephone interview. | D. | Mail survey. | 34. All of the following are advantages of Internet surveys EXCEPT _____. A. | random sampling| B. | speed| C. | visual appeal| D. | accurate real-time data capture| 35. _____ is the process of describing some property of a phenomenon, usually by assigning numbers, in a reliable and valid way. A. | Research| B. | Analysis| C. | Validation| D. | Measurement| 6. Age, gender, brand loyalty, and corporate culture are all examples of _____. A. | concepts. | B. | scales. | C. | ratios. | D. | codes. | 37. Which of the following refers to concepts measured with multiple variables? A. | Operation. | B. | Construct. | C. | Concept. | D. | Scale. | 38. In an observation study, when “shopping time in a supermarket” is defined as: “Using a stopwatch, start the stopwatch the moment the customer enters the store and stop the stopwatch as soon as the customer is handed a receipt by the checkout clerk,” this is best described as an example of a(n) ______. A. | nominal scale| B. equivalent-form scale| C. | operational definition| D. | test-retest method| 39. Coding household income into “Above $100,000,” “Between $50,000 and $100,000,” and “Below $50,000” is an example of a(n) _____ scale. A. | interval| B. | test-retest| C. | criterion| D. | nominal| 40. When respondents are asked to place local shopping malls so that their first choice is 1, their second choice is 2, and so forth, this is best-described as an example of a(n) _____ scale. A. | ordinal| B. | ratio| C. | interval| D. | nominal| 41. The Fahrenheit temperature scale is best described as an example of a(n) _____ scale.
A. | ratio| B. | nominal| C. | interval| D. | ordinal| 42. Which type of scale represents the highest form of measurement? A. | Nominal scale. | B. | Ordinal. | C. | Ratio. | D. | Interval. | 43. Which of the following is a defining characteristic in determining between ratio and interval scales? A. | Number of items. | B. | Absolute zero. | C. | Number of intervals. | D. | Nominal values. | 44. A(n) _____ is a single characteristic or fundamental feature of an object, person, situation, or issue. A. | concept| B. | variable| C. | attribute| D. | construct| 45.
Which of the following is an indicator of a measure’s internal consistency? A. | Reliability. | B. | Validity. | C. | Coefficient beta. | D. | Sensitivity. | 46. A researcher who administers the same scale to the same respondents at two separate times to test for stability is using which method of assessing the scale’s reliability? A. | Coefficient alpha. | B. | Split-half method. | C. | Test-retest method. | D. | Before/after method. | 47. The ability of a measuring instrument to measure what it is supposed to measure is the basic purpose of _____. A. | reliability| B. | validity| C. | sensitivity| D. | indexing| 48.
When a group of experts agrees that a measuring instrument measures what it is intended to measure, we say that the instrument has _____ validity. A. | face| B. | criterion| C. | test-retest| D. | equivalent-forms| 49. Which type of validity addresses the question, “Does my measure correlate with measures of similar concepts or known quantities? ” A. | Face validity. | B. | Reliability validity. | C. | Criterion validity. | D. | Discriminant validity. | 50. Which of the following is a component of construct validity? A. | Face validity. | B. | Discriminant validity. | C. | Convergent validity. | D. | All of the above. |