Jewellery Jewellery or jewelry is a form of personal adornment, manifesting itself as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. Jewellery may be made from any material, usually gemstones, precious metals, beads, or shells. Factors affecting the choice of materials include cultural differences and the availability of the materials. Jewellery may be appreciated because of its material properties, its patterns, or for meaningful symbols. Jewellery differs from other items of personal adornment in that it has no other purpose than to look appealing.

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Items such as belts and handbags are considered to be accessories rather than jewellery. The word jewellery is derived from the word jewel, which was anglicized from the Old French “jouel” circa the 13th century. Further tracing leads back to the Latin word “jocale”, meaning plaything. Jewellery is one of the oldest forms of body adornment; recently-found 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells are thought to be the oldest known jewellery. Jewellery is sometimes regarded as a way of showing wealth and might also possess some minimal functionality, such as holding a garment together or keeping hair in place.

It has from very early times been regarded as a form of personal adornment. The first pieces of jewellery were made from natural materials, such as bone, animal teeth, shell, wood and carved stone. Some jewellery throughout the ages may have specifically been as an indication of a social group. More exotic jewellery is often for wealthier people, with its rarity increasing its value. Due to its personal nature and its indication of social class, some cultures established traditions of burying the dead with their jewellery.

Jewellery has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings and many more types of jewellery. While traditional jewellery is usually made with gemstones and precious metals, such as silver or gold, there is also a growing demand for art jewellery where design and creativity is prized above material value. In addition, there is the less costly costume jewellery, made from lower value materials and often mass-produced. Other variations include wire sculpture (wrap) jewellery, using anything from base metal wire with rock tumbled stone to precious metals and precious gemstones.

Materials and methods Diamonds Diamonds were first mined in India. Pliny may have mentioned them, although there is some debate as to the exact nature of the stone he referred to as Adamas; In 2005, Australia, Botswana, Russia and Canada ranked among the primary sources of gemstone diamond production. The British crown jewels contain the Cullinan Diamond, part of the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found (1905), at 3,106. 75 carats (621. 35 g). Now popular in engagement rings, this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary of Burgundy in 1477

Amber Amber, an ancient organic gemstone, is composed of tree resin that has hardened over time. The stone must be at least one million years old to be classified as amber, and some amber can be up to 120 million years old. Amethyst Amethyst has historically been the most prized gemstone in the quartz family. It is treasured for its purple hue, which can range in tone from light to dark. Emerald Emeralds are one of the three main precious gemstones (along with rubies and sapphires) and are known for their fine green to bluish green colour.

They have been treasured throughout history, and some historians report that the Egyptians mined emerald as early as 3500 BC. Jade Jade is most commonly associated with the colour green but can come in a number of other colours, as well. Jade is closely linked to Asian culture, history, and tradition, and is sometimes referred to as the stone of heaven. Jasper Jasper is a gemstone of the chalcedony family that comes in a variety of colours. Often, jasper will feature unique and interesting patterns within the coloured stone.

Picture jasper is a type of jasper known for the colours (often beiges and browns) and swirls in the stone’s pattern. Quartz Quartz refers to a family of crystalline gemstones of various colours and sizes. Among the well-known types of quartz are rose quartz (which has a delicate pink colour), and smoky quartz (which comes in a variety of shades of translucent brown). A number of other gemstones, such asAmethyst and Citrine, are also part of the quartz family. Rutilated quartz is a popular type of quartz containing needle-like inclusions. Ruby

Rubies are known for their intense red colour and are among the most highly valued precious gemstones. Rubies have been treasured for millennia. In Sanskrit, the word for ruby is ratnaraj, meaning king of precious stones. Sapphire `The most popular form of sapphire is blue sapphire, which is known for its medium to deep blue colour and strong saturation. Fancy sapphires of various colours are also available. In the United States, blue sapphire tends to be the most popular and most affordable of the three major precious gemstones (emerald, ruby, and sapphire). Turquoise

Turquoise is found in only a few places on earth, and the world’s largest turquoise producing region is the southwest United States. Turquoise is prized for its attractive colour, most often an intense medium blue or a greenish blue, and its ancient heritage. Turquoise is used in a great variety of jewellery styles. It is perhaps most closely associated with southwest and Native American jewellery, but it is also used in many sleek, modern styles. Some turquoise contains a matrix of dark brown markings, which provides an interesting contrast to the gemstone’s bright blue colour.

Some gemstones (like pearls, coral, and amber) are classified as organic, meaning that they are produced by living organisms. Others are inorganic, meaning that they are generally composed of and arise from minerals. Some gems, for example, amethyst, have become less valued as methods of extracting and importing them have progressed. Some man-made gems can serve in place of natural gems, such as cubic zirconia, which can be used in place of diamond. Metal finishes For platinum, gold, and silver jewellery, there are many techniques to create finishes.

The most common are high-polish, satin/matte, brushed, and hammered. High-polished jewellery is by far the most common and gives the metal a highly reflective, shiny look. Satin, or matte finish reduces the shine and reflection of the jewellery and is commonly used to accentuate gemstones such as diamonds. Brushed finishes give the jewellery a textured look and are created by brushing a material (similar to sandpaper) against the metal, leaving “brush strokes. ” Hammered finishes are typically created by using a soft, rounded hammer and hammering the jewellery to give it a wavy texture.

Some jewellery is plated to give it a shiny, reflective look or to achieve a desired colour. Sterling silver jewellery may be plated with a thin layer of 0. 999 fine silver (a process known as flashing) or may be plated with rhodium or gold. Base metal costume jewellery may also be plated with silver, gold, or rhodium for a more attractive finish. History Early history The first signs of jewellery came from the people in Africa. Perforated beads made from snail shells have been found dating to 75,000 years ago at Blombos Cave.

In Kenya, at Enkapune Ya Muto, beads made from perforated ostrich egg shells have been dated to more than 40,000 years ago. Egypt The first signs of established jewellery making in Ancient Egypt was around 3,000-5,000 years ago. The Egyptians preferred the luxury, rarity, and workability of gold over other metals. Predynastic Egypt had Jewellery in Egypt soon began to symbolise power and religious power in the community. Although it was worn by wealthy Egyptians in life, it was also worn by them in death, with jewellery commonly placed amonggrave goods.

Europe and the Middle East Mesopotamia By approximately 4,000 years ago, jewellery-making had become a significant craft in the cities of Sumer and Akkad. The most significant archaeological evidence comes from the Royal Cemetery of Ur, where hundreds of burials dating 2900–2300 BC were unearthed; tombs such as that of Puabi contained a multitude of artefacts in gold, silver, and semi-precious stones, such as lapis lazuli crowns embellished with gold figurines, close-fitting collar necklaces, and jewel-headed pins.

In Assyria, men and women both wore extensive amounts of jewellery, includingamulets, ankle bracelets, heavy multi-strand necklaces, and cylinder seals. Jewellery in Mesopotamia tended to be manufactured from thin metal leaf and was set with large numbers of brightly-coloured stones (chiefly agate, lapis, carnelian, and jasper). Favoured shapes included leaves, spirals, cones, and bunches of grapes. Jewellers created works both for human use and for adorning statues and idols. They employed a wide variety of sophisticated metalworking techniques, such as cloisonne,engraving, fine granulation, and filigree.

Extensive and meticulously maintained records pertaining to the trade and manufacture of jewellery have also been unearthed throughout Mesopotamian archaeological sites. One record in the Mari royal archives, for example, gives the composition of various items of jewellery: 1 necklace of flat speckled chalcedony beads including: 34 flat speckled chalcedony bead, [and] 35 gold fluted beads, in groups of five. 1 necklace of flat speckled chalcedony beads including: 39 flat speckled chalcedony beads, [with] 41 fluted beads in a group that make up the hanging device. necklace with rounded lapis lazuli beads including: 28 rounded lapis lazuli beads, [and] 29 fluted beads for its clasp. Greece The Greeks started using gold and gems in jewellery in 1600 BC, although beads shaped as shells and animals were produced widely in earlier times. By 300 BC, the Greeks had mastered making coloured jewellery and using amethysts, pearl, and emeralds. Also, the first signs ofcameos appeared, with the Greeks creating them from Indian Sardonyx, a striped brown pink and cream agate stone.

Greek jewellery was often simpler than in other cultures, with simple designs and workmanship. However, as time progressed, the designs grew in complexity and different materials were soon used. Rome Although jewellery work was abundantly diverse in earlier times, especially among the barbarian tribes such as the Celts, when the Romans conquered most of Europe, jewellery was changed as smaller factions developed the Roman designs. The most common artefact of early Rome was the brooch, which was used to secure clothing together.

The Romans used a diverse range of materials for their jewellery from their extensive resources across the continent. Although they used gold, they sometimes used bronze or bone, and in earlier times, glass beads & pearl. As early as 2,000 years ago, they imported Sri Lankan sapphires and Indian diamonds and used emeralds and amber in their jewellery. In Roman-ruled England, fossilised wood called jet from Northern England was often carved into pieces of jewellery. The early Italians worked in crude gold and created clasps, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets.

They also produced larger pendants that could be filled with perfume. Middle Ages Post-Roman Europe continued to develop jewellery making skills. The Celts and Merovingians in particular are noted for their jewellery, which in terms of quality matched or exceeded that of Byzantium. Clothing fasteners, amulets, and, to a lesser extent, signet rings, are the most common artefacts known to us. A particularly striking celtic example is the Tara Brooch. The Torc was common throughout Europe as a symbol of status and power.

By the 8th century, jewelled weaponry was common for men, while other jewellery (with the exception of signet rings) seemed to become the domain of women. Grave goods found in a 6th-7th century burial near Chalon-sur-Saoneare illustrative. A young girl was buried with: 2 silver fibulae, a necklace (with coins), bracelet, gold earrings, a pair of hair-pins, comb, and buckle. [24] The Celts specialised in continuous patterns and designs, while Merovingian designs are best known for stylised animal figures. [25] They were not the only groups known for high quality work.

Note the Visigoth work shown here, and the numerous decorative objects found at the Anglo-Saxon Ship burial at Sutton Hoo Suffolk, England are a particularly well-known example. [19] On the continent, cloisonne and garnet were perhaps the quintessential method and gemstone of the period. Renaissance The Renaissance and exploration both had significant impacts on the development of jewellery in Europe. By the 17th century, increasing exploration and trade led to increased availability of a wide variety of gemstones as well as exposure to the art of other cultures.

Whereas prior to this the working of gold and precious metal had been at the forefront of jewellery, this period saw increasing dominance of gemstones and their settings. A fascinating example of this is the Cheapside Hoard, the stock of a jeweller hidden in London during the Commonwealth period and not found again until 1912. It contained Colombian emerald, topaz, amazonite from Brazil, spinel, iolite, and chrysoberyl from Sri Lanka,ruby from India, Afghani lapis lazuli, Persian turquoise, Red Sea peridot, as well as Bohemian and Hungarian opal, garnet, and amethyst.

Large stones were frequently set in box-bezels on enamelled rings. Notable among merchants of the period was Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, who brought the precursor stone of the Hope Diamond to France in the 1660s. Romanticism Starting in the late 18th century, Romanticism had a profound impact on the development of western jewellery. Perhaps the most significant influences were the public’s fascination with the treasures being discovered through the birth of modern archaeology and a fascination with Medieval and Renaissance art.

Changing social conditions and the onset of the Industrial Revolution also led to growth of a middle class that wanted and could afford jewellery. As a result, the use of industrial processes, cheaper alloys, and stone substitutes led to the development of paste or costume jewellery. Distinguished goldsmiths continued to flourish, however, as wealthier patrons sought to ensure that what they wore still stood apart from the jewellery of the masses, not only through use of precious metals and stones but also though superior artistic and technical work.

One such artist was the French goldsmith Francoise Desire Froment Meurice. A category unique to this period and quite appropriate to the philosophy of romanticism was mourning jewellery. It originated in England, where Queen Victoria was often seen wearing jetjewellery after the death of Prince Albert, and it allowed the wearer to continue wearing jewellery while expressing a state of mourning at the death of a loved one. Art Nouveau n the 1890s, jewellers began to explore the potential of the growing Art Nouveau style and the closely related German Jugendstil, British (and to ome extent American) Arts and Crafts Movement, Catalan Modernisme, Austro-Hungarian Sezession, Italian “Liberty”, etc. Art Nouveau jewellery encompassed many distinct features including a focus on the female form and an emphasis on colour, most commonly rendered through the use of enamelling techniques including basse-taille, champleve, cloisonne, and plique-a-jour. Motifs included orchids, irises, pansies, vines, swans, peacocks, snakes, dragonflies, mythological creatures, and the female silhouette. Art Deco

Growing political tensions, the after-effects of the war, and a reaction against the perceived decadence of the turn of the 20th century led to simpler forms, combined with more effective manufacturing for mass production of high-quality jewellery. Covering the period of the 1920s and 1930s, the style has become popularly known as Art Deco. Walter Gropius and the German Bauhaus movement, with their philosophy of “no barriers between artists and craftsmen” led to some interesting and stylistically simplified forms.

Modern materials were also introduced: plastics and aluminium were first used in jewellery, and of note are the chromed pendants of Russian-born Bauhaus master Naum Slutzky. Asia n Asia, the Indian subcontinent has the longest continuous legacy of jewellery making anywhere, with a history of over 5,000 years. [31] One of the first to start jewellery making were the peoples of the Indus Valley Civilization in what is now predominately modern-day Pakistan. Early jewellery making in China started around the same period, but it became widespread with the spread of Buddhism around 2,000 years ago. China

One of the earliest cultures to begin making jewellery in Asia were the Chinese around 5,000 years ago. Chinese jewellery designs were very religion-oriented and contained Buddhist symbols, a tradition which continues to this day. India has a long jewellery history, which went through various changes through cultural influence and politics for more than 5,000 years. Indiahas the longest continuous legacy of jewellery making anywhere since Ramayana and Mahabharata times. Because India had abundant amount of jewellery resources, it prospered financially through export and exchange with other countries.

While Western traditions were heavily influenced by waxing and waning empires, India enjoyed a continuous development of art forms for some 5,000 years. [31] One of the first to start jewellery making were the peoples of the Indus Valley Civilization (encompassing present-day Pakistan and northwest India). By 1500 BC, the peoples of the Indus Valley were creating gold earrings and necklaces, bead necklaces, and metallic bangles. Before 2100 BC, prior to the period when metals were widely used, the largest jewellery trade in the Indus Valley region was the bead trade.

Beads in the Indus Valley were made using simple techniques. First, a bead maker would need a rough stone, which would be bought from an eastern stone trader. The stone would then be placed into a hot oven where it would be heated until it turned deep red, a colour highly prized by people of the Indus Valley. The red stone would then be chipped to the right size and a hole bored through it with primitive drills. The beads were then polished. Some beads were also painted with designs. This art form was often passed down through family.

Children of bead makers often learned how to work beads from a young age. Persian style also plays a big role in India’s jewellery. Each stone had its own characteristics related to Hinduism. North and South America Jewellery played a major role in the fate of the Americas when the Spanish established an empire to seize South American gold. Jewellery making developed in the Americas 5,000 years ago in Central and South America. Large amounts of gold was easily accessible, and the Aztecs, Mixtecs, Mayans, and numerous Andean cultures, such as the Mochica of Peru, created beautiful pieces of jewellery.

Pacific Jewellery making in the Pacific started later than in other areas because of recent human settlement. Early Pacific jewellery was made of bone, wood, and other natural materials, and thus has not survived. Most Pacific jewellery is worn above the waist, with headdresses, necklaces, hair pins, and arm and waist belts being the most common pieces. Jewelry Artists 1940s ? Margaret Da Patta, United States, 1903–1964 ? Sam Kramer, United States, 1913–1984 ? Paul Lobel, Romania, 1899–1983, United States ? Art Smith, United States, 1923–1982 ? Ed Weiner, United States, 1918–1991 1950s Betty Cooke, United States, 1924- ? Margret Craver, United States, 1907- ? Claire Falkenstein, United States, 1908–1998 ? Henning Kopel, Denmark, 1918–1981 ? Ronald Hayes Pearson, United States, 1924–1996 1960s ? Joe Reyes Apodaca, United States, 1942- ? Friedrich Becker, Germany, 1922-1997 ? Gijs Bakker, The Netherlands, 1942- ? Irene Brynner, Russia, 1917–2003, United States ? Vivianna Torum Bulow-Hube, Sweden, 1927–2004 ? Ken Cory, United States, 1943–1994 ? Alma Eikerman, United States, 1908–1995 ? Philip Fike, United States, 1927–1997 ? Arline M. Fisch, United States, 1931- Hermann Juenger, Germany, 1928-2005 ? Stanley Lechtzin, United states, 1936- ? Emmy van Leersum, The Netherlands, 1930–1984 ? Charles Loloma, United States, 1921–1991 ? John Paul Miller, United States,1918- ? Dieter Pieper, Germany, 1937- ? Gio Pomodoro, Italy, 1930–2002 ? Ruth Radakovich, United States, 1920–1975 ? Merry Renk, United States, 1921- ? Olaf Skoogfors, Sweden, 1930–1975 ? Ramona Solberg, United States, 1921–2005 ? Klaus Ulrich, Germany, 1927- ? Bob Winston, United States, 1915–2003 ? J. Fred Woell, United States, 1934- 1970s ? Caroline Broadhead, England, 1950- William Claude Harper, United States, 1944- ? Susanna Heron, England, 1949- ? Otto Kunzli, Switzerland, 1948- Germany ? Ibram Lassaw, Egypt, 1913–2003, United States ? Richard Mawdsley, United States, 1945- ? Robert Lee Morris, Germany 1947- United States ? Mary Ann Scher, United States, 1921- ? Bernd Munsteiner, Germany, 1943- 1980s ? Jamie Bennett, United States, 1948- ? Peter Chang, England, 1944-, Scotland ? Sharon Church, United States, 1948- ? Cara Croninger, United States, 1939- ? Eric W. Ebendorf, United States, 1938- ? David Freda, United States, 1953- ? Lisa Gralnick, United States, 1956- Hermann Junger, Germany, 1928–2005 ? Esther Knobel, Poland, 1949-, Israel ? Julia Manheim, England, 1949- ? K. Lee Manuel, United States, 1936–2003 ? William Tasso Mattar, Germany, 1946-, Mallorca ? Bruce Metcalf, United States, 1949- ? Mira Mimlitsch-Gray, United States, 1942- ? Pavel Opocensky, Czechoslovakia, 1954, Czech Republic ? Earl Pardon, United States, 1926–1991 ? Hiroko Sato Pijanowski, Japan, 1942-, United States ? Gretchen Raber, United States, 1943 ? Wendy Ramshaw, England, 1939- ? Vernon Reed, United States, 1948- ? Richard Reinhardt, United States, 1921–1998 ? Ivy Ross Marjorie Schick, United States, 1941- ? Verena Sieber-Fuchs, Switzerland, 1943- ? Kiff Siemmons, United States, 1944- ? Rachel Thiewes, United States, 1952- ? David Tisdale, United States, 1958- ? David Watkins, England, 1940- ? Beatrice Wood, United States, 1893–1998 ? Lam de Wolf, The Netherlands, 1949- ? Michael Zobel, Germany, 1943- 1990s ? Julia Barello, United States, 1957- ? Keith Lo Bue, United States, 1964-, Australia ? Pierre Cavalan, France, 1954-, Australia ? Claude Chavent, France, 1947- ? Francoise Chavant, France, 1947- ? Ramon Puig Cuyas, Spain, 1953-, United States David Damkoehler, United States, 1943- ? Marilyn Druin, United States, 1941–2001 ? Eva Eisler, Czechoslovakia, 1952-, Czech Republic ? Pat Flynn, United States, 1954- ? Rosemary Gialamas, United States, 1962- ? Thomas Gentile, United States, 1935- ? Svenja John, Germany, 1963- ? Daniel Jocz, United States, 1943- ? Enid Kaplan, United States, 1954–2002, Israel ? Danielle Kerner, Israle, 1952-, United States ? Jacqueline Lillie, France, 1941-, Austria ? Linda MacNeil, United States, 1954- ? Bruno Martinazzi, Italy, 1923- ? Julie Ann Mihalisin, United States, 1962- Tom Munsteiner, Germany, 1969- ? Ted Muehling, United States, 1953 ? Zach Peabody, United States, 1968- ? Kim Rawdin, United States, 1950- ? Gerd Rothmann,Germany, 1941- ? Joyce Scott, United States, 1948- ? Lisa Spiros, United States, 1959- ? Janna Syvanoja, Finland, 1960- ? Tony Vigeland, Norway, 1938- ? Jeff Wise, United States, 1953- ? Nancy Worden, United States, 1954- ? Kee-ho Yuen, China, 1956-, United States ? Alberto Zorzi, Italy, 1958- 2000s ? Tamara Megan Johnson, United States, 1980- ? Oliver Pieper, Germany-Japan, 1967- Arts [pic][pic] Moche Ear Ornaments. 1-800 AD.

A modern opal bracelet Larco Museum Collection, Lima-Peru [pic] [pic] A Navaratna ring. Jade coiled serpent, Han Dynasty  (202 BC-220 AD) [pic] [pic] Royal earrings, India, 1st Century BC. Gold earring from Mycenae, 16th century BC. [pic] [pic] Amulet pendant (254 BC) made fromAn 18th dynasty pharaonic  gold,lapis lazuli, turquoise andera princess’ crown carnelian, 14 cm wide. [pic][pic] Diamond ringAmber pendants [pic][pic] Contemporary jewellery design. The Queen Farida of Egypt red coral parure by Ascione manifacture, 1938, Neaples, Coral Jewellery Museum


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