Kin 370 Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam #1 Chapter 1: The Nature of Stress · According to the definitions of stress, identify the components of which stress is comprised. (pg 8)) 1. A stressor or some sort of demand, pressure, situation, or event 2. our perception of that stressor 3. an emotional reactions 4. a psychiological reaction · Describe the two types of stress and the two types of distress. (pg 9) Eustress and Distress are 2 types Distress: public speaking, abusive relationship · Describe the Yerkes-Dodson Principle. (pg 13) Too little stress, as well as too much stress, is unhealthy Describe the types of stressors. (pg 17) Physiological stressor: illness, injury, etc Sociological stressor: relationships with others psychological stressor: subconscious perception of yourself philosophical stressor: stems from not living with your values/beliefs · Define each of the dimensions of health. (pg 21) Physical health social health emotional health intellectual health spiritual health environmental health occupational health holistic health: comprehensive and includes more than physical health · Describe how stress and health are related. pg 28) quality of each dimension of health may perpetuate and exacerbate a stressful life or contribute to peaceful life · Briefly identify results from NCHA regarding stress as it’s related to health, obesity, and smoking. obese people (high BMI) were most stressed under them, underweight students Chapter 2: The Face of Stress · Identify the pioneers of stress and with what they are credited. (pg 56-57) look at page · Describe the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. (pg 47) “Life changes scale” Predict relative chances of getting sick from stressors Describe Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and how his theory relates to stress. (pg 55) Phenomenon that humans have certain needs · Identify the components of the ABCs of Human Needs. (pg 55-56) A= Accomplishment B=belonging c=comfort d=dependability e=esteem f=finances · Identify gender differences in the prevalence of stress. (pg. 48-54) Look at pages but women more stressed than men · Identify the prevalence of stress among Americans. (pg 48-49) Look at pages · Briefly describe results from NCHA regarding stress and ethnicity among college students. pg 49) Black lowest stress-prone, Alaskan/Indian highest, next hispanic, asian, then white · Briefly describe results from NCHA regarding differences among male and female college students. (pg 49-50, LECTURES) Females report a lot higher stress · Briefly describe differences in the way males and females handle stress. (LECTURE) Females handle stress better in high risk behaviors as a way of coping with stress · Identify the number of workers who experience high levels of stress. 9 out of 10 · Identify the number of workers who said job stress lowered their roductivity and caused frequent ailments. (pg 52, LECTURE) 7 out of 10 · Identify how many workers have taken a mental health day off of workdue to stress. one in four · Identify differences in health care costs associated with workers who report that they are stressed compared to those that aren’t stressed. (lecture) stressed people accrue health costs 46% higher than normal people Chapter 3: The Mind/Body Connection Describe the Stress Response or Model of Stress. Pg 74-75 1. First you encounter a stressor 2. Cognitive appraisal- is the stressor bad? How bad is it?
Perceptions and thoughts are made about the stressor come into play based on your personal experiences, phiolosophy, values, attitudes, and beliefs, which are largely determined by you past experiences 3. Feelings and emotions- Your thoughts and perceptions are closely tied to your feelings and emotions. In other words, how you’re feeling results from and is determined to a large extent by what you are thinking. 4. Physiological reactions- Your body responds to your emotions, which were elicited by your thoughts and perceptions, and either prepares you to flight or run away.
Aka: fight or flight 5. Health Consequences• Describe psychophysiology and psychoneuroimmunology. – pg 73 – Psychophysiology- the mind/body connection, psycho: mind or consciousness, physiology: body- how the mind affects the body – Psychoneuroimmunology- is more specific and refers to the study of the interaction of your consciousness (psycho), your brain and central nervous system (neuro), and your ability to fight disease (immunology) : so it is the study of how your mind affects your body, specifically the immune system. Describe the three stages of GAS- General Adeptation Syndrome. Pg 78 1. Alarm- initial encounter, alert attention 2. Resistance- Body tries to revert back to homeostasis, body still stays aroused but less in intensity 3. Exhaustion- feeling burned out. When more or one organs cannot meet demands placed on it • Describe what happens during the fight-or-flight response (or stress response). Pg 75, 76 – “The stress response” – Your body responds to your emotions, which were elicited by your thoughts and perceptions, and either prepares you to flight or run away.
Aka: fight or flight • Describe what happens to each physiological system during the stress response. – Neurological System- hormones and neurotransmitters inhibit- short term memory, concentration, inhibition, and rational thoughts. Interferes with ability to handle difficult social or intellectual tasks and behaviors. Hormones and neurotransmitters inhibit long term memory of response to the stress experienced. – Cardiovascular system- heart rate and blood pressure increase, breathing becomes rapid.
Blood flow increases. Adrenaline acts on B1 receptors on heart, combing to increase blood output. Alpha receptors found in the blood vessel walls combine with adrenaline to effectively stimulate the blood vessels- better distribution. – Respitory System- increased respitory rate. – Immune System- defense weakens, the cells such as WBC are positioned in places where body thinks there is going to be an infection. Cortisol suppresses the immune system resulting in increased suseptability of infections. Muscular System- contraction of muscles – Skeletal System – Endocrine System- secretion of hormones – Nervous System- CNS PNS • Describe what happens to specific organs during the stress response. Pg 78 • Identify the three glands that are most closely associated with the stress response. Pg 77 – Pituitary Gland- brain – Adrenal Gland- kidney – Thyroid Gland- base of neck • Identify the hormone(s) that are associated with being in a stressed state and a relaxed state. Hypothalamus secretes ARH (stressed state) – ARH makes pituitary secrete ACTH- adrenocorticotrophic (stressed state) – ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete: Adrinaline (epinephrine), noradrinaline (norepinephrine), cortisol – primary horomones associated with stress • Describe differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. Sympathetic- responsible for activating stress response Parasympathetic- conservation of energy and relaxation (acetocoline- hormone associated wit relaxed feeling) Chapter 4: Consequences of Stress 1.
Identify the percentage of visits to primary care physicians that are for stress-related problems and the percentage of disease and illness that is thought to be related to stress. (pg. 94) Stress-related: 75-90% Disease and illness: up to 90% 2. Describe how stress is associated with heart disease. Stress hormones (adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol) are secreted, extra fat is released your bloodstream, and then it returns to the liver where it’s converted into cholesterol. (pg. into 96) 3. Briefly describe results of studies pertaining to heart disease and stress.
Paul Rosch, professor at the New York Medical College, found that stress could be more powerful than diet in terms of influencing cholesterol levels. several studies have shown significant increases of cholesterol levels during stressful situations where there was little change in diet patients who practiced relaxation and taming hostility reduced the risk of having further heart problems by 75% Alan Young, a cardiologist at Harvard Medical School, found that those already suffering from coronary heart disease experienced even more constriction of blood vessels hen under stress Debra Moser of Ohio State University in Columbus found that patients who just suffered a heart attack and were under anxiety/stress were 4. 9x more likely to suffer additional complications (pg. 96-97) 4. Identify the findings of the two articles pertaining to weight gain and stress. Lack of emotional support in younger children related to obesity, but for older children and physical health problems along with financial strain related to obesity. mental Parents of cancer patients more likely to gain weight and had significant weight gain throughout the three months of the study. lecture) 5. Briefly describe findings of the study done at the University of Minnesota pertaining to academic performance and stress. Students with unhealthy behaviors had lower GPA’s. Stress rated as #1 health impediment academic performance. Out of 70% of students who reported they were stressed, 1/3 said to stress was hurting their academic performance. Students with 8 plus stressors had an average GPA of 2. 72 No significant stress had average GPA of 3. 3 6. Briefly describe the consequences of stress on academic performance. Lower GPA . Summarize findings of stress and road rage. Psychiatric distress was highest in hard core road rage perpetrators. Young men most prone road rage. 56% of men vs 44% of women on a daily basis. Men under the age of 19 most competitive/aggressive. Miami, Florida most aggressive drivers. to 8. Identify the stats pertaining to suicide. college students have considered attempting suicide in the past twelve months and 1. 4% actually attempted suicide. Suicide rates among youth have increased more than 200% in the last fifty years. Every 100 min. omeone commits suicide. For every suicide there are 100 unsuccessful attempts. The leading #1 leading cause of suicide is untreated depression. More people die by suicide than homicide. Chapter 5: Personality & Stress 1. Identify components of personality. Values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors (pg. 113) 2. Identify influencing factors associated with personality development. Genetic factors, family dynamics, social influences, past experiences (pg. 115) 3. Identify characteristics associated with those who handle stress effectively.
Control their lives and look for active solutions to problems, be committed to meaningful goals, use little nicotine and caffeine, relax at least 15 min each day, get regular aerobic exercise, be actively involved with others (pg. 116). · Identify personality characteristics of stress-prone and stress-resistant personalities. (pg 117-121) Stress-prone: stress out more often and to greater extent. Includes: Type A Codependent Helpless-hopeless Stress-resistant: hardy personality type R high self-esteem · Identify the 3 Cs of a hardy personality. pg 117) Challenge Control Commitment · Describe resilience and the traits associated with it. Learning to make stress work for you (learn and use for motivation for change) Ability to adapt when things go wrong 1. Decisiveness 2. Sense of Purposefulness 3. Values 4. Flexibility VIDEOS: Stress and Anxiety make Allergies Worse: Stress and Anxiety makes allergic responses worse Put pollen on arms of volunteers—monitored skin To see how stress affects allergic reactions, they made them do public speaking. The response was 2-3x as worse
Managing Stress on the Job: Adrenal glands release cortisol breaks down muscle protein and releases amino acids into blood amino acids used by liver to form sugar (glucose) glucose is used by the brain and increases blood sugar levels insulins primary responsibility is to control glucose cortisol also releases fatty acids from fat cells to be used for muscle energy Blood is full of FA’s and glucose triggers hunger, deposits toxic fats adrenalin constricts muscle and increases heart rate Two forms of stress: Catatoxic: Anything the body does to fight stressor irectly bacteria–> high fever Syntoxic: Moderate the catatoxic reaction control everything Stress and Heart Disease Doctor Recommendations: Learn how to reduce stress Yoga, massage, ti-chi social support Volunteering Will make you happier Message: Being a volunteer, and selfessness counteracts the bad effects of stress on body. 52% of women that did not volunteer had major illness. Oxitosin increases when help others (and dopamine). Helping reduces your stress, boosts immune and cardiovascular system.