Nature vs Nurture Physical Development
Decoding is the process translating a written word into a spoken word (“cracking the code”). An individual who has developed adequate decoding skills can begin to acquire fluency when reading no longer requires a conscious, deliberate effort. When fluent, reading becomes automatic and consists of word recognition rather than sounding out and combining syllables necessary to decode words. Teaching decoding provides students with the keys to unlock new words. Teaching the regular phonetic patterns of English can do this. These rules can be applied to words with which the student is already familiar.
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New words are then introduced beginning with simple words and working through more complex words. Finally, irregular phonemic patterns can be introduced and eventually mastered. Examples and strategies: Look at this word [point to the first word. – Semantic webbing is a strategy for reading instruction that enables students to activate their prior knowledge about a subject before reading a text. Semantic webbing is also known as concept mapping or word webbing. 1. Semantic Webbing Basics * Semantic webbing allows students to think about a topic before they read a piece of text.
You can use semantic webbing to activate and assess their prior knowledge about the topic. Simple Webbing * In a basic web, you put a main topic in the center of the page and draw lines radiating from it with words that relate to that main topic at the end of every line. You create a web of related words. Convergent Webbing * In convergent semantic webbing, you begin with a series of concepts or ideas and ask your students to tell you what they know about those concepts and how they think their text is going to deal with them. Divergent Mapping In divergent mapping, students list sub-topics for a main concept or idea, and put those sub-topics into categories, taking what they know about a topic and organize it into logical patterns. Uses * Aside from pre-reading, you can use semantic webbing during reading by asking students to add to their webs with the new information they learned from the text. After reading, a semantic web can serve as the basis for a writing assignment. Mental or psychic energy[clarification needed] or activity is the concept[who? ] of a principle of activity powering the operation of the mind or psyche.
Many modern psychologists or neuroscientists would equate it with increased metabolism in neurons of the brain. Reading Decoding Skills and the Elementary ReaderReading decoding skills are a critical component in the ability to read. Unfortunately, knowing how to teach reading decoding skills is a mystery to most parents. To better understand how to teach reading decoding skills, it is helpful to first understand what reading decoding skills are. What Are Reading Decoding Skills? Reading decoding skills is the ability to make sense of printed words.
This involves recalling and recognizing the spoken word that is represented by the printed word. In other words, reading decoding skills is the ability to understand that a printed word represents the spoken word, and that this printed word is made of a sequence of phonemes. To take it a step further, reading decoding skills also require the ability to recognize the individual phonemes and phoneme blends. In essence, to have strong reading decoding skills, your child must have a basic understanding of the written word and its many properties.
In all, a word has five major properties: • Semantics • Syntax • Conceptual relationship • Phonological properties • Morphological propertiesIn addition, you will focus on using the word, as well. In this way, your child sees you modeling ways to use the word. It also helps prove to him that you think learning new words is important. You might even want to develop this into a contest and keep score on who manages to use the word in a meaningful way the most throughout the week, then follow it up with a special treat – such as a movie or some other family outing.
How Do Semantics Affect Reading Decoding Skills? Semantics is the word’s meaning. Semantics is an important part of reading decoding skills because the broader your child’s vocabulary, the better he will be able to understand and remember new words and their meanings. Directly teaching vocabulary is the best way to increase your child’s vocabulary, or semantics, skills. Interestingly, the more new words your child learns, the more new words he is capable of learning. Furthermore, there is a direct correlation between vocabulary and reading comprehension.
In other words, the more words your child knows and understands, the better he will be able to comprehend new words and comprehend the things that he reads. How Does Syntax Relate To Reading Decoding Skills? Syntax is the function, or part of speech, a word represents. In order to understand a sentence, your child needs to understand the relationships between words. After your child reads a sentence and determines the grammatical purpose of the word, as well as the semantic meaning of the word, she can comprehend the meaning of the sentence as a whole.
In this way, your child might not remember each word of the sentence, but she retains the general meaning or purpose of the sentence. This is not to say that your child’s reading decoding skills have to be so aptly honed that he is capable of identifying and labeling the grammatical purpose of every word in a sentence. Research has shown, however, that training in labeling of sentences does help children better understand sentences and, therefore, remember sentences. Therefore, syntax is necessary to understand a sentence’s meaning.
How Does Understanding Conceptual Relationships Help With Reading Decoding Skills? Reading decoding skills require understanding about how words relate to each other, or conceptual relationships. Preexisting knowledge of words and their meanings helps your child understand new words. Furthermore, understanding the relationships between words helps strengthen your child’s understanding and ability to remember new words, as well as previously learned words. For example, understanding the word “car” can help your child understand and remember the word “van. This is because your child already has a basic understanding of what a van is because he understands the word “car. ” When your child later learns the word “automobile,” he will be able to group all of these words together to gain a clearer understanding of all three words. How Do Phonological Properties Relate To Reading Decoding Skills? Phonological properties are the characteristics of the various sounds in a word. Using these reading decoding skills is often referred to as “phonemic awareness. ” This is the understanding of the fact that words are made up of units of sounds.
This also involves the understanding that letter sounds are affected by the letters around them. For example, the letter “a” is pronounced differently in the words “face” and “mass. ” Digraphs are also a part of reading decoding skills and phonological properties. Digraphs are letter combinations, such as “ch” and “sh. ” These letters, when used separately, have a very different sound from when they are used together. Through knowledge of phonological properties, your child can learn to sound out new words as she encounters them in her reading.
What Do Morphological Properties Have To Do With Reading Decoding Skills? Morphological properties are the word elements that create new words and change the meaning of words. Examples include prefixes, suffixes, and root words. Understanding morphological awareness is important to reading decoding skills because this helps your child break words down into more familiar words. For example, if your child knows what “school” means and what “pre” means, he will be able to figure out what the word “preschool” means.
Having a solid morphological awareness will also assist your child in determining the grammatical purpose of a word. By the time your child reaches 3rd grade, most new words will be based on words he already knows. Reading decoding skills are in integral part of learning to read. Practice these skills and teach them to your child as often as possible to help him become a strong reader. For practical tips for teaching reading decoding skills, read: Tips For Teaching Decoding Reading Skills. | | isual Learners: * Learn by seeing or reading * Do well when material is resented and tested visually, not verbally * Benefit from written notes and directions, diagrams, charts, maps, and pictures * Often love to draw, read, and write; are good spellers and organizers| Auditory Learners: * Learn by listening * Do well in lecture-based learning environments and on oral reports and tests * Benefit from classroom discussions, spoken directions, study groups * Often love music, languages, and being on stage| Kinesthetic Learners: * Learn by doing and moving * Do well when they can move, touch, explore, and create in order to learn * Benefit from hands-on activities, lab classes, props, skits, and field trips * Often love sports, drama, dance, martial arts, and arts and crafts| Learning tips and tools for visual learners: * Use books, videos, computers, visual aids, and flashcards. * Make detailed, color-coded or highlighted notes. * Make outlines, diagrams, and lists. Use drawings and illustrations (preferably in color). * Take detailed notes in class. Learning tips and tools for auditory learners: * Read notes or study materials aloud. * Memorize using word associations and verbal repetition. * Study with other students, talk things through. * Listen to books on tape or other audio recordings. * Use a tape recorder to listen to lectures again later. Learning tips and tools for kinesthetic learners: * Get hands on: do experiments, take field trips. * Use activity-based study tools, like role-playing or model building. * Study in small groups and take frequent breaks. * Use memory games and flash cards. * Study with music on in the background.