Cipcommunity

Observer Fires

Observer Fires

FM 3-09. 30 Final Draft CRC Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Observed Fire and Fire Support at Battalion Task Force and Below FINAL DRAFT 31 May 2001 FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Observed Fire and Fire Support at Battalion Task Force and Below DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ARMY HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY Preface

The purpose of this field manual (FM) is to provide a source for the most current essential information about fire support at the battalion task force and company team levels and discuss the technical, operational, and organizational aspects of observed fire procedures. The doctrinal foundations for this publication are found in FM 3-09 (6-20), Doctrine for Fire Support. Fire support tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) for brigade, division, and corps operations are in FM 3-09. 4 (6-20-40), Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Fire Support for Brigade Operations, FM 3-09. (6-20-30), Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Fire Support for Division Operations, and FM 3-09. 6, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Fire Support for Corps Operations. The TTP for the targeting process are in FM 3-60 (6-20-10), Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for the Targeting Process. The target audience for this manual is battalion task force fire support personnel, company team fire support team (FIST) personnel, and other fire support observers to include combat observation lasing teams (COLTs), Strikers, and maneuver shooters.

This publication implements the following international agreements (standardization agreements [STANAGs] and quadripartite standardization agreements [QSTAGs]): • STANAG 1034, Edition 8, Allied Spotting Procedures for Naval Gunfire Support. • STANAG 2934 A ARTY P-1 Artillery Procedures. • STANAG 3736, Edition 7, Offensive Air Support Operations. • QSTAG 224, Edition 3, Manual Fire Direction Equipment, Target Classification, and Methods of Engagement. The proponent of this publication is Commandant, United States Army Field Artillery School (USAFAS).

Send comments and recommendations directly to: Commandant USAFAS ATTN: Warfighting Integration and Development Directorate (ATSF-D) Fort Sill, OK 73503-5600. Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men. vii *FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) Field Manual No. 3-09. 30 (6-30) Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, D. C. , [pending date] Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Observed Fire and Fire Support at Battalion Task Force and Below Contents Page PREFACE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO FIRE SUPPORT …………………………………………………………… 1-1 Role of Fire Support …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1-1 Fire Support Effectiveness ……………………………………………………………………………. 1-1 Tactical Missions ………………………………………………………………….. …………………….. 1-6 Fire Support Planning and Coordination …………………………………………………………. -7 Targets …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1-26 Target Acquisition Assets……………………………………………………………………………. 1-32 Chapter 2 BATTALION TASK FORCE FIRE SUPPORT ………………………………………………… 2-1 Fire Support Element Organization ………………………………………………………………… 2-1 Fire Support Planning and the Military Decision Making Process ………………………. -4 Battalion Task Force Fire Support Products ………………………………………………….. 2-18 Rehearsals ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2-21 Fire Support Coordination and Execution ……………………………………………………… 2-23 Split TOC Operations …………………………………………………………………………………. 2-24 The Tactics of Fire Support …………………………………………………………………………. -24 Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. ________ *This publication supersedes FM 6-20-20, 27 December 1991 and FM 6-30, 16 July 1991 i FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT ____________________________________________________________ __ Chapter 3 COMPANY TEAM FIRE SUPPORT………………………………………………………………. 3-1 Fire Support Team ………………………………………………………………………………………. -1 Preparation for Operations……………………………………………………………………………. 3-5 Vehicle Employment Options………………………………………………………………………… 3-7 Observation Posts……………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-8 Company Team Fire Support Planning Using the Troop Leading Procedures …… 3-10 Required Products …………………………………………………………………………………….. -19 Company Team Fire Support Coordination and Execution ……………………………… 3-20 Chapter 4 COMMUNICATIONS …………………………………………………………………………………… 4-1 Fire Support Communications Nets……………………………………………………………….. 4-1 Fire Support Communications Net Diagrams ………………………………………………….. 4-4 Chapter 5 TARGET LOCATION ………………………………………………………………………………….. -1 Terrain-Map Association ………………………………………………………………………………. 5-1 Introduction to Methods of Target Location …………………………………………………….. 5-1 Direction …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5-2 Distance …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5-8 Altitude/Elevation ………………………………………………………………………………………. -14 Terrain Sketch…………………………………………………………………………………………… 5-16 Methods of Target Location ……………………………………………………………………….. 5-17 Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver ……………………………………………………………. 5-20 Chapter 6 CALL FOR FIRE…………………………………………………………………………………………. 6-1 Description …………………………………………………………………………………………………. -1 Six Elements of the Call for Fire ……………………………………………………………………. 6-2 Corrections of Errors……………………………………………………………………………………. 6-9 Message to Observer…………………………………………………………………………………… 6-9 Additional Information ………………………………………………………………………………… 6-10 Authentication …………………………………………………………………………………………… -11 FDC Commands ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 6-11 Sample Missions ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 6-12 Chapter 7 ADJUSTMENT OF FIRE ……………………………………………………………………………… 7-1 Section I – Subsequent Corrections……………………………………………………………. 7-1 Purpose of Adjustment…………………………………………………………………………………. -1 Adjusting Point ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 7-1 Spottings ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7-2 Types of Corrections……………………………………………………………………………………. 7-5 Sequence of Subsequent Corrections ……………………………………………………………. 7-7 ii ____________________________________________________________ __ FM 3-09. 0 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT Section II – Area Fire (Adjustment and Fire for Effect) ……………………………….. 7-11 Adjustment Techniques ………………………………………………………………………………. 7-11 Fire for Effect …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7-14 Refinement and Surveillance ………………………………………………………………………. 7-14 Section III – Artillery and Mortar Precision Fires ………………………………………… -16 Types of Precision Missions………………………………………………………………………… 7-16 Precision Registration ………………………………………………………………………………… 7-16 Destruction Mission ……………………………………………………………………………………. 7-30 High Burst and Mean Point of Impact Registration …………………………………………. 7-30 Section IV – Moving Targets ……………………………………………………………………… -35 Target of Opportunity………………………………………………………………………………….. 7-35 Planned Target ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7-35 Moving Target Calculations…………………………………………………………………………. 7-36 Trigger and Intercept Point Considerations……………………………………………………. 7-40 Chapter 8 SPECIAL MUNITIONS…………………………………………………………………………………. -1 Section I – Improved Conventional Munitions ……………………………………………… 8-1 Characteristics…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8-1 Call for Fire and Adjustment………………………………………………………………………….. 8-3 Sample ICM Missions…………………………………………………………………………………… 8-3 ICM Considerations ……………………………………………………………………………………… -4 Section II – Field Artillery Delivered SCATMINEs …………………………………………. 8-5 Characteristics…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8-5 Types of Minefields………………………………………………………………………………………. 8-6 Selection of Mine Density……………………………………………………………………………… 8-7 Selection of SD Time……………………………………………………………………………………. -7 Target Location……………………………………………………………………………………………. 8-8 Call for Fire and Adjustment…………………………………………………………. ………………. 8-8 Sample SCATMINE Missions………………………………………………………………………… 8-9 FSO Technical Planning Data ……………………………………………………………………….. 8-9 Section III – Illumination ……………………………………………………………………………. -11 Characteristics…………………………………………………………………………………………… 8-11 Employment Considerations ……………………………………………………………………….. 8-11 Call for and Adjustment of Illumination………………………………………………………….. 8-13 Coordinated and Continuous Illumination ……………………………………………………… 8-15 Sample Illumination Missions ………………………………………………………………………. -16 Section IV – Smoke …………………………………………………………………………………… 8-18 Characteristics…………………………………………………………………………………………… 8-18 Smoke Rounds ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8-19 iii FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT ____________________________________________________________ __ Employment Considerations ……………………………………………………………………….. -20 Smoke Delivery Techniques ………………………………………………………………….. …… 8-26 Immediate Smoke ……………………………………………………………………………………… 8-27 Quick Smoke…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8-28 Sample Missions ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 8-29 Mortar Procedures …………………………………………………………………………………….. -31 Section V – Copperhead …………………………………………………………………………… 8-32 Characteristics ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8-32 Employment ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 8-32 Engagement……………………………………………………………………………………………… 8-33 Targets of Opportunity ……………………………………………………………………………….. -35 Planned Targets………………………………………………………………………………………… 8-36 Copperhead Call for Fire…………………………………………………………………………….. 8-37 Chapter 9 OBSERVER SPECIAL MISSIONS………………………………………………………………… 9-1 Fires for the Aviation Battalion ………………………………………………………………………. 9-1 Fires for Pilots …………………………………………………………………………………………….. -4 High-Angle Fire …………………………………………………………………………………………… 9-8 Final Protective Fire …………………………………………………………………………………….. 9-9 Multiple Missions……………………………………………………………………………………….. 9-11 Auxiliary Adjusting Point …………………………………………………………………………….. 9-11 Observer Not Oriented……………………………………………………………………………….. -12 Irregularly Shaped Target …………………………………………………………………………… 9-12 Adjustment by Sound…………………………………………………………………………………. 9-13 Observer Emergency Procedures ……………………………………………………………….. 9-14 Chapter 10 CLOSE AIR SUPPORT, ATTACK HELICOPTERS, AND NAVAL GUNFIRE…… 10-1 Section I – Close Air Support ……………………………………………………………………. 0-1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10-1 Request……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10-1 Employment ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 10-3 Emergency CAS Mission Control ………………………………………………………………. 10-16 Aircraft Characteristics……………………………………………………………………………… 0-19 Risk Estimate Distance …………………………………………………………………………….. 10-22 Levels of Threat ………………………………………………………………………………………. 10-24 Informal ACA Separation Techniques ………………………………………………………… 10-24 Section II – Attack Helicopters ………………………………………………………………… 10-30 Fire Support ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 0-30 Capabilities……………………………………………………………………………………………… 10-30 iv ____________________________________________________________ __ FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT Army and Air Force Coordination ……………………………………………………………….. 10-33 Target Handover………………………………………………………………………………………. 10-33 Section III – Naval Gunfire ……………………………………………………………………….. 0-35 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………… 10-35 Elements of the Call for Fire………………………………………………………………………. 10-35 Adjustment of Naval Gunfire ……………………………………………………………………… 10-42 Ship Characteristic …………………………………………………………………………………… 10-53 Troop Safety ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 0-54 Appendix A MUNITIONS EFFECTS AND CAPABILITIES…………………………………………………. A-1 Observer Responsibilities……………………………………………………………………………… A-1 Target Description ……………………………………………………………………………………….. A-1 Most Suitable Ammunition…………………………………………………………………………….. A-2 Method of Attack…………………………………………………………………………………………..

A-4 Effects of Munitions ………………………………………………………………….. …………………. A-4 Appendix B BRIEFINGS, REPORTS, AND CHECKLISTS ………………………………………………… B-1 Fire Support Status Brief ………………………………………………………………………………. B-1 FIST Report ………………………………………………………………………………………………… B-1 Shelling Report …………………………………………………………………………………………….

B-1 SALUTE Report…………………………………………………………………………………………… B-2 FIST/FO SLoCTOP Checklists………………………………………………………………………. B-3 FSO/FSE Planning and Execution Checklists………………………………………………….. B-5 MOUT Checklists…………………………………………………………………………………………. B-7 Precombat Checks and Precombat Inspections …………………………………………….

B-16 Appendix C FIRE SUPPORT VEHICLES………………………………………………………………………… C-1 M981 FIST Vehicle ……………………………………………………………………………………… C-1 Bradley Fire Support Team Vehicle ………………………………………………………………. C-3 Striker ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. C-4 Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

C-5 Appendix D LASER RANGE FINDERS AND DESIGNATORS AND WEAPONS SYSTEMS … D-1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………… D-1 Ground/Vehicular Laser Locator Designator…………………………………………………… D-2 AN/GVS-5 Laser Rangefinder ………………………………………………………………………. D-6 AN/PVS-6 Mini Eyesafe Laser Infrared Observation Set…………………………………..

D-7 Lightweight Laser Designator Rangefinder …………………………………………………….. D-8 AH-64 Target Acquisition and Designation Sight …………………………………………….. D-8 OH-58D Mast Mounted Sight ……………………………………………………………………….. D-9 Laser Target Designator………………………………………………………………………………. D-9 v FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT ____________________________________________________________ __

Modular Universal Laser Equipment………………………………………………………………. D-9 Air Force Laser Systems…………………………………………………………………………….. D-10 Laser Guided Weapons ……………………………………………………………………………… D-10 Laser Safety During Training ………………………………………………………………………. D-12 Glossary Bibliography Index GLOSSARY ……………………………………………………………………………………..

Glossary-1 BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………………………… Bibliography-1 INDEX ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Index-1 vi Chapter 1 Introduction to Fire Support ROLE OF FIRE SUPPORT 1-01. Fire support is the collective and coordinated employment of the fires of armed aircraft, land- and sea-based indirect fire systems, and electronic warfare (EW) systems against ground targets to support land combat operations. 1-02.

Fire support operations must be flexible enough to integrate and synchronize lethal and nonlethal fires and effects with the scheme of maneuver across full spectrum operations to include: offensive, defensive, stability, and support operations. At the battalion task force level field artillery (FA), mortars, armed aircraft, and naval gunfire (NGF) deliver lethal fires and effects. Nonlethal means include effects from illumination, smoke, EW capabilities, and information operations (IO). 1-03. Fire support provides the maneuver commander a means to: • Destroy, neutralize, and suppress the enemy. Obscure the enemy’s vision. • Isolate enemy formations and positions. • Slow and canalize enemy movements. • Influence the fight at ranges greater than direct fire weapons. • Reduce the effect of enemy artillery with counterfire. FIRE SUPPORT EFFECTIVENESS BATTALION TASK FORCE FIRE SUPPORT 1-04. At battalion task force level the fire support coordinator (FSCOORD) is the task force fire support officer (FSO). He is in charge of the battalion task force fire support element (FSE) and the principal fire support advisor to the battalion task force commander and his staff.

The battalion task force FSE plans, coordinates, and executes fire support for the battalion task force commander’s concept of operations. See Chapter 2 for a discussion of fire support at the battalion task force level. COMPANY TEAM FIRE SUPPORT 1-05. At company team level the FSCOORD is the company team FSO. He is in charge of the FIST. He is the principal fire support advisor to the company team commander. The FIST plans, coordinates, and executes fire support for the company team commander’s concept of operations. See Chapter 3 for a discussion of fire support at the company team level. 1-1 FM 3-09. 0 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT ____________________________________________________________ __ THE FIELD ARTILLERY TEAM 1-06. Fire support gunnery involves the coordinated efforts of the FA team, which consists of the observer, the fire direction center (FDC), and the firing element-all linked by an adequate communications system and field artillery tactical data systems (FATDS). Doctrine requires team members to operate with a sense of urgency, to continually strive to reduce the time required to execute an effective fire mission, and to strive to achieve first-round fire for effect (FFE) whenever possible. Observer 1-07.

The observer serves as the “eyes” of indirect fire systems. He detects and locates suitable indirect fire targets within his zone of observation. To attack a target the observer transmits a request for indirect fires and adjusts the fires onto the target when necessary. An observer provides surveillance data pertaining to his fires. See Chapter 3 for a discussion of the observer and his FIST. Chapters 5 through 9 discuss observed fire TTP. Fire Direction Center 1-08. An FDC serves as the “brain” of the system. It receives the call for fire from the observer and sends a fire order to the firing unit.

An FDC has the capability to determine how to attack a target (tactical fire direction) as well as determining firing data and converting this data to fire commands (technical fire direction). Firing Unit 1-09. The firing unit serves as the “brawn” of the system. The firing unit delivers fires as directed by the FDC. Newer FA weapon systems have, or will have, the onboard ability to determine technical fire direction data. SYSTEM RESPONSIVENESS 1-10. The fire support system consists of target acquisition (TA), weapons and munitions, and command and control (C2).

To be an effective force in battle, fire support must be responsive to the needs of maneuver forces. Procedures must be streamlined to minimize the time between TA and effects on the target. Delays can result in failure to achieve adequate effects on the target. Responsiveness can be achieved by: • Accomplishing all fire support planning, coordination, and execution by digital means when possible. • Planning fire support requirements in advance. • Streamlining the call for fire. • Limiting radio transmissions on fire nets to time-sensitive, missionessential traffic only. Effective Fires on Target 1-11.

The ability of the fire support system to place effective fires on a target will depend, in part, on the method of fire and type of ammunition selected to attack the target. Maximum effect can be achieved through accurate initial fires and massed fires 1-2 ____________________________________________________________ __ FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT 1-12. Accurate Initial Fires. Observers must strive for first-round FFE. Figure 1-1 compares effect achieved to length of adjustment. High E f f e c t Unwarned, Short Adjustment Warned, Long Adjustment Low 0 0 Rounds in Adjustment 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 Warning Time (minutes)

Figure 1-1. Effectiveness Compared to Length of Adjustment 1-13. Massed Fires. Massing all available fires normally enables us to inflict maximum effect on a target with a minimum expenditure of ammunition. It also reduces our vulnerability to enemy TA devices. Failure to mass fires gives the enemy time to react and seek protection. Figure 1-2 compares massed fire and successive volley ammunition expenditures to get equivalent effect. Massed fires of three battalions firing one round are more effective against soft targets than one battalion firing the same total number of rounds in successive volleys.

This is because of the minimum time lag between volley impacts. Massed fires ensure maximum effect in attacking targets that can easily change their posture category; for example, a soft target (personnel in the open) can easily become a hard target (personnel with overhead cover). Massed fires do not necessarily provide increased effectiveness against hard targets, because volume of fire is more critical than round impact timing. 1-3 FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT ____________________________________________________________ __

Target Postures Initial Volley 60% Standing 40% Prone Subsequent Volleys 25% Prone 75% In Foxhole or Equivalent Weapon and Target Data Weapon: 155-MM M198, M109A6 Target Diameter: 250 meters Target: Personnel In Open 300 258 Rounds 200 180 100 54 Three Battalions 1 Volley One Battalion 10 Volleys One Battery 43 Volleys Figure 1-2. Number of Rounds Required for Equivalent Effect 1-14. Proper Munitions. In attacking the target, the shell-fuze combination selected must be capable of producing the desired results against the most vulnerable part of the target; for example, the gun crew versus the gun.

Failure to select proper shell-fuze combinations will result in an excessive expenditure of ammunition and a reduction in effects on target. Figure 1-3 compares ammunition expenditures and effects on target. 1-4 ____________________________________________________________ __ FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT Weapon and Target Data Weapon: 155-MM M198, M109A6 Target Diameter: 250 meters Target: Personnel In Open Rounds HE/Q HE/VT ICM Same Number of Casualties Achieved Figure 1-3. Ammunition Expenditures and Relative Effects 1-15. Law of War Considerations. In addition to the above tactical considerations, the election of targets, munitions, and techniques of fire must comply with the Geneva and Hague Convention regarding prohibited targets and tactics. CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS 1-16. The accuracy of calls for fire depends on the actions and capabilities of observers and company team FISTs and the accuracy of fire support plans. Error-free self-location and precise target location by the observer supports first round FFE. First round FFE on a target of opportunity and immediate and effective suppression of enemy direct fire systems are essential if the supported maneuver unit is to accomplish its mission.

Moreover, accurate location of planned targets is imperative to effective execution of a fire support plan. Accurate location of planned targets is possible only if the enemy is under actual observation by an observer or other targeting asset and continuous target refinement data is reported to the appropriate headquarters. 1-17. Achievement of these goals is primarily situation dependent. Accuracy of FA fires also depends to a great extent on the skill and experience of the observer who calls for fire and the equipment he uses for self-location and target location. 1-5 FM 3-09. 0 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT ____________________________________________________________ __ 1-18. Past observers, equipped with nothing more than a map, binoculars, and compass could expect a mean target location error of about 500 metersclearly not good enough for first round FFE or target suppression. 1-19. Attainable accuracy for today’s observers teams equipped with optical and electronic devices such as laser rangefinders and position-locating systems has improved greatly over the past few years. When properly used by trained and qualified observers, these devices enable the observer to attain first round accuracy.

Care must be exercised however, when using lasing devices that are not eye-safe. Severe eye injuries can be inflicted through improper use. WARNING Lasers have inherently hazardous characteristics. Lasers that are not eye-safe can inflict severe eye injury. 1-20. Observer teams, battalion task force FSOs, and company team FSOs must ensure the maneuver commander recognizes the capabilities and limitations on attainable accuracy of indirect fire systems and considers this when developing his scheme of maneuver. TACTICAL MISSIONS 1-21.

The FSO informs the battalion task force or company team commander of the tactical missions assigned to the FA units supporting the operations. These tactical missions shown in Table 1-1 describe the fire support responsibilities of FA units. This information is vital to planning fire support for tactical operations. 1-6 ____________________________________________________________ __ FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT Table 1-1. The Seven Inherent Responsibilities of Field Artillery Tactical Missions AN FA UNIT WITH A TACTICAL MISSION OFAnswers calls for fire in priority fromDIRECT SUPPORT (DS) 1.

Supported unit 2. Own observers1 3. Force FA headquarters (HQ) Zone of action of supported unit. REINFORCING (R) 1. Reinforced FA 2. Own observers1 3. Force FA HQ GENERAL SUPPORT REINFORCING (GSR) 1. Force FA HQ 2. Reinforced unit 1 3. Own observers Zone of action of supported unit to include zone of fire of reinforced FA unit. No requirement. Reinforced FA unit HQ. Reinforced FA unit HQ. Force FA HQ or reinforced FA unit if approved by force FA HQ. Force FA HQ. GENERAL SUPPORT (GS) 1. Force FA HQ 2. Own observers1 Has as its zone of fire- Zone of fire of reinforced FA.

Zone of action of supported unit. Furnishes fire support personnel2 Furnishes liaison toEstablishes communication withIs positioned by- Provides temporary replacements for causality losses as required. No requirement. FSOs and supported maneuver unit HQ. DS FA unit commander or as ordered by force HQ. Develops own fire plan. No requirement. Reinforced FA unit HQ. Reinforced FA unit HQ. Reinforced FA unit or as ordered by force FA HQ. Reinforced FA unit HQ. No requirement. No requirement No requirement. Force FA HQ. Has its fires planned by1 2 Force FA HQ.

Includes all TA means not deployed with supported unit (radar, aerial observers, survey parties, and so on). An FSE for each maneuver brigade, battalion task force, or cavalry squadron and one FIST with each maneuver company team or ground cavalry troop are trained and deployed by the FA unit authorized these assets. After deployment, FISTs and FSEs remain with the supported maneuver unit throughout the conflict. FIRE SUPPORT PLANNING AND COORDINATION TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Fire Support Planning 1-22. Fire support planning is the continual process of analyzing, allocating, and scheduling fire support.

The goal of fire support planning is to effectively integrate fire support into battle plans to optimize combat power. It is performed as part of the military decision making process (MDMP). Fire Support Coordination 1-23. Fire support coordination is the continual process of implementing fire support planning and managing the fire support assets that are available to a maneuver force. 1-7 FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT ____________________________________________________________ __ Fire Planning 1-24. Fire planning is the continual process of selecting targets on which fires are prearranged to support a phase of the commander’s plan.

Essential Fire Support Task 1-25. An essential fire support task (EFST) is a task for fire support to accomplish that is required to support a combined arms operation. Failure to achieve an EFST may require the commander to alter his tactical or operational plan. A fully developed EFST has a task, purpose, method, and effects (TPME). The task describes what targeting objective (e. g. , delay, disrupt, limit, or destroy) fires must achieve on an enemy formation’s function or capability. The purpose describes why the task contributes to maneuver.

The method describes how the task will be accomplished by assigning responsibility to observers or units and delivery assets and providing amplifying information or restrictions. Typically, the method is described by covering three categories: priority, allocation, and restrictions. Effects quantify successful accomplishment of the task. Concept of fires 1-26. The concept of fires is the logical sequence of EFSTs, integrated with the scheme of maneuver, that will accomplish the mission and achieve the commander’s intent. It allocates in broad terms, the fire support assets to achieve the EFSTs.

The concept of fires is the basis of the fires paragraph. Scheme of Fires 1-27. The scheme of fires is the detailed, logical sequence of targets and fire support events to find and attack high-payoff targets (HPTs). It details how we expect to execute the fire support plan in accordance with the time and space of the battlefield to accomplish the commander’s EFSTs. The products of the fire support annex: fire support execution matrix (FSEM), target list/overlay, and/or a target synchronization matrix (TSM) articulate the scheme of fires. FIRE SUPPORT TASKS 1-28. The basic fire support tasks are s follows: • Support forces in contact. • Support the concept of operations. • Synchronize fire support. • Sustain fire support operations. 1-29. The following fire support tasks are performed in support of all combat operations: • Locate targets. • Integrate all available fire support. • Destroy, neutralize, or suppress enemy direct and indirect fire weapons. • Provide illumination and smoke. • Provide fires in support of joint air attack team (JAAT) and suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD) operations. 1-8 ____________________________________________________________ __ FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT Deliver scatterable mines (SCATMINEs). • Prepare for future operations. • Provide positive clearance of fire. 1-30. Offensive fire support tasks include the following: • Execute all plans as the commander intends. • Support the movement to contact or meeting engagement. • Soften enemy defenses before the attack by arranging short, violent preparations when required. • Provide support during the attack by attacking HPTs. • Plan for deep area and flanking fires. • Plan for fires to support the close area fight. • Plan fires during consolidation. • Plan fires for exploitation and pursuit. • Provide counterfires. -31. Defensive fire support tasks include the following: • Execute all plans as the commander intends. • Disorganize, delay, and weaken the enemy before the attack. • Provide counterfires. • Provide fires in support of planned engagement areas (EAs). • Attack HPTs. • Plan fires in support of barrier and obstacle plans. • Plan for deep, flanking, and rear area fires. • Provide fires to support counterattacks. • Plan final protective fire (FPFs). MANEUVER COMMANDER RESPONSIBILITIES 1-32. The maneuver commander has the responsibility to ensure that fire support is synchronized with the scheme of maneuver.

When he discusses current or future operations, concepts, or courses of action, the FSO, as FSCOORD should be at his side. The maneuver commander provides the commander’s intent for an operation and issues guidance for fire support. It is incumbent upon the FSO to understand the commander’s intent and translate his guidance for fire support into EFSTs. Additionally, the maneuver commander: • Approves the fires paragraph of the operation order, high-payoff target list (HPTL), the attack guidance matrix (AGM), target selection standards (TSS), or the TSM that combines the preceding three, and the EFSTs. Approves fire support coordinating measure (FSCMs). • Clears indirect fires. Normally delegated to the command post (CP) and executed by the battle staff under the lead of the FSE. • Train company team commanders to know, understand, and execute targets in their zone. 1-9 FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT ____________________________________________________________ __ Commander’s Intent 1-33. FM 101-5, Chapter 5 defines commander’s intent as “… a clear, concise statement of what the force must do to succeed with respect to the enemy and the terrain and to the desired end state.

It provides the link between the mission and the concept of operations by stating the key tasks that, along with the mission, are the basis for subordinates to exercise initiative when unanticipated opportunities arise or when the original concept of operations no longer applies. ” Commander’s Guidance for Fire Support 1-34. The maneuver commander’s guidance for fire support provides the FSO doctrinally stated tasks and purposes. A task for fire support describes a targeting effect against a specific enemy formation’s function or capability.

The purpose describes how this effect contributes to accomplishing the mission within the commander’s intent. The planning guidance for fire support becomes the basis for the concept of fires and the fires paragraph discussed in the paragraphs below. The maneuver commander considers the following with respect to issuing fire support guidance: • Method of engagement against potential HPTs (e. g. , maneuver, lethal or nonlethal fires) and the desired effects. • Engagement criteria (guidance on the size and type of units fires engage at different points in the operation). Observer plans (e. g. , employment of FISTs, COLTs, and Strikers). • Special munitions considerations (e. g. , use of SCATMINE, smoke, or illumination). • Radar and counterfire considerations (e. g. , radar security, establishment of critical friendly zones [CFZs] or call for fire zones [CFFZs]). • SEAD. • FSCMs. • Rules of engagement (ROE) and protected targets. FIRE SUPPORT PLANNING PROCESS 1-35. The fire support planning process has four imperatives: • Fire support planning must be a part of the MDMP and be fully integrated into the existing planning process.

Note: The fire support planning process using the MDMP at the battalion task force level is discussed in Chapter 2. Company team fire support planning is discussed in Chapter 3. • Fire support planning must truly integrate the targeting process and its functions of decide, detect, deliver, and assess (D3A). • Fire support planning must support and be integrated with the reconnaissance and surveillance (R&S) plan. The R&S plan is a key link between the MDMP and fire support planning/targeting.

The R&S plan links acquisition assets to finding specific enemy formations or required information to answer the commander’s critical information requirements. • The result of the fire support planning process is an effective, integrated, and executable plan. 1-10 ____________________________________________________________ __ FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT An effective plan clearly defines and focuses on achieving the effects required against the identified HPTs. An integrated plan provides the focus and timing for acquisition and attack systems to achieve a unified effect on HPTs.

An executable plan ties detect and deliver assets to the HPTs and includes assessment of effects achieved. The plan must be simple, clearly communicated and have built in flexibility using well-defined decision points and triggers. 1-36. The fire planning process involves the identification of EFST requirements and responsibilities, the allocation of all assets necessary to accomplish or support those EFSTs, and the continual refinement of all data applicable to the successful execution of the EFSTs through planning, preparation, and execution. The fire planning process is summarized in Figure 1-4. Note: TF = task force, TM = team) Brigade Identify Requirements for Division EFSTs Assign Responsibilities for Division EFSTs Develop Brigade EFSTs Develop Targets to Support Brigade EFSTs Assign Responsibilities For Brigade EFSTs Allocate Assets to Battalions/TFs Verify Refinement Rehearse & Execute Rehearse & Execute Battalion/TF Identify Requirements for Brigade EFSTs Assign Responsibilities for Brigade EFSTs Develop Battalion/TF EFSTs Assign Responsibilities For Battalion/TF EFSTs Allocate Assets to Companies Verify Refinement Company/TM Identify Requirements for Battalion/TF EFSTs Assign Responsibilities for Battalion/TF EFSTs Develop Company EFSTs Assign Responsibilities For Company EFSTs Rehearse & Execute Figure 1-4. The Fire Planning Process FIRE SUPPORT PLAN 1-37.

The FSO in coordination with the maneuver operations officer and other fire support representatives prepares the fires portion of the concept of operations subparagraph of the operation order (OPORD) during the MDMP. The FSO also coordinates the preparation of the fire support paragraph, which includes a subparagraph for fire support assets included in an operation (e. g. , close air support [CAS], FA and mortars, and NGF). These two paragraphs and the supporting annexes (if any), target lists, schedules, matrices, or other documents make up the fire support plan. The OPORD 1-11 FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT ____________________________________________________________ __ format is shown in Figure 1-5. For further details see FM 101-5, Staff Organization and Operations.

OPORD ***** 1. SITUATION 2. MISSION 3. EXECUTION Intent a. Concept of Operations (1) Maneuver (2) Fires ***** b. Tasks to Maneuver Units c. Tasks to Combat Support Units ***** (3) Fire Support (a) Air Support (b) Field Artillery Support (c) Naval Gunfire Support (d) Fire Support Coordinating Measures d. Coordinating Instructions 4. SERVICE SUPPORT 5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL Figure 1-5. OPORD Format Paragraph 3a(2) – the fires paragraph 1-38. As a subparagraph to the concept of operations, the fires paragraph describes the concept of fires that, along with the scheme of maneuver communicates how the force as a whole will achieve the commander’s intent.

The primary audience for the fires paragraph is the subordinate maneuver commanders and their staffs. It must clearly describe the logical sequence of EFSTs and how they contribute to the concept of operations. 1-39. The overall paragraph organization should mirror that of the scheme of maneuver paragraph. If the maneuver paragraph is phased or otherwise organized, the fires paragraph will take on the same organization. The internal format for the fires paragraph uses four subcategories: TPME. Within each phase of an operation, each EFST will be described in the sequence of planned execution using TPME. The fires paragraph must be concise but specific enough to clearly state what fires are to accomplish in the operation.

The information required in each subcategory is outlined below. 1-40. Task. Task describes the targeting objective fires must achieve against a specific enemy formation’s function or capability. These formations are HPTs or contain one or more HPT. Task is normally expressed in terms of objective, formation, and function. 1-12 ____________________________________________________________ __ FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT • Objective. Clearly describes the targeting objectives that must be achieved. Use terms such as disrupt, delay, limit or any other terms that describe the effects required. • Formation. A specific element or subelement of the enemy.

This can specify a specific vehicle type or target category as long as the element or subelement is clear. • Function. A capability of the formation that is needed for it (the enemy formation) to achieve its primary task and purpose. 1-41. Purpose. Purpose describes the maneuver or operational reason for the task. This should identify as specifically as possible the friendly maneuver formation that will benefit from the targeting objective and describe in space and time what the objective will accomplish. EXAMPLE TASK AND PURPOSE Objective Disrupt the ability of Formation the motorized infantry platoon at point of penetration Function to place effective direct fire against the breach force… to allow a mechanized team to breach the obstacle without becoming decisively engaged by the motorized infantry platoon at the point of penetration 1-42. Method. Method describes how the task and purpose will be achieved. It ties the detect function to the deliver function in time and space and describes how to accomplish the task. It is normally described in terms of a priority, allocation, and restriction. Method includes: • Priority of fires (POFs). • Observers (primary/alternate). • Triggers. • Target allocation. • Priority targets. • CAS allocations. • FPFs. • Restrictions. • Special munitions. • Intelligence and electronic warfare assets. • Any other instructions. 1-43. Priority.

For detection assets, it assigns priorities for named areas of interest (NAIs), targeted areas of interest (TAIs), EAs, and/or HPTs to find. For deliver assets, it assigns the priority of which HPT that system will primarily be used against. 1-44. Allocation. For both detection and deliver assets, it describes the allocation of assets to accomplish the EFST. 1-13 FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT ____________________________________________________________ __ 1-45. Restriction. Describes constraints-either requirements to do something; or prohibition on action. Considerations include ammunition restrictions and FSCMs. EXAMPLE METHOD FA POF to Team Alpha, mortar POF to Team Charlie.

Primary observer for AB1000 (motorized infantry platoon at point of penetration) is Team Alpha from Observation Post (OP) 1, No Fire Area (NFA) 1. Alternate observer is COLT 2, NFA 3… no dualpurpose improved conventional munitions (DPICM) within 300 meters NP177368…. Airspace Coordination Area (ACA) Lion in effect when CAS at initial point…. 1-46. Effects. Effects attempt to quantify the successful accomplishment of the task. They provide a guide to determine when we are done with the task. One measure is to determine if the purpose was met. If multiple delivery assets are involved, it helps clarify what each must accomplish. Effects determination also provide the basis for the assess function of targeting and contribute to the decision of whether to re-attack the target. EXAMPLE

EFFECTS No hostile fire on the breach force from enemy motorized infantry platoon unit at least the assault force has passed through. 25 percent of vehicles and 50 percent of enemy motorized infantry platoon destroyed. 1-47. Note: At battalion task force and below, a formal written OPORD may not be produced. A fire support plan at this level may be an operations overlay with written instructions, an FSEM, and a target list/overlay. Quick Fire Plan 1-48. The purpose of a quick fire plan is to quickly prepare and execute fire support in anticipation of an impending operation. Quick fire plan techniques constitute an informal fire plan. Quick fire plans may be developed by brigade, battalion task force, or company team FSOs to support their respective organizations.

Like all fire support plans, the maneuver commander approves the quick fire plan. In quick fire planning the FSO assigns targets (and possibly a schedule of fires) to the most appropriate fire support means available to support the operation. In this type of fire support planning the available time usually does not permit evaluation of targets on the target list and consolidation with targets from related fire support agencies. 1-49. The approved quick fire plan is disseminated digitally or by Department of the Army (DA) Form 5368-R (Quick Fire Plan) to attack systems, higher 1-14 ____________________________________________________________ __ FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT eadquarters FSEs, and those who will implement the plan to include the FA battalion CP and the mortar platoon leader. Figure 1-6 shows an example of a completed quick fire plan using DA Form 5368-R. The scheduling work sheet is on the reverse side of the form. QUICK FIRE PLAN For use of this form, see FM 6-20; the proponent agency is Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). FIRE PLAN SUPPORTING ORIGINATOR MODIFICATIONS BY OKLAHOMA TF 2-64 F34 F34 H-HOUR SHEET OF DATE-TIME-GROUP 1 1 1700 1630Z TARGET INFORMATION L I N E TARGET NUMBER (a) BB4003 BB4004 BB4005 BB4006 DESCRIPTION (b) MORTAR PLT TRENCH LINE INFANTRY PLT ANTITANK POSITION LOCATION (c) WA607218 WA604215 WA602217 WA596242 ALTITUDE (d)

REMARKS (e) CAS/FA LINEAR 500 m, HE/WP ATTITUDE 2400 TF MORTARS SMOKE, ON CALL 1 2 3 4 SCHEDULE L I N E 1 ORGANIZATION (f) 2-39 FA FIRE UNIT (g) A -15 4003 36 4003 36 4003 36 4 TF MORTARS -10 TIMINGS (h) -5 4004 66(a) 4004 66(a) 4004 66(a) 4005 240 5 CAS Two Sorties 4003 H +5 4004 48(b) 4004 48(b) 4004 48(b) REMARKS (j) 4006 4(d) ••••? ••••? ••••? ••••? ••••? •••• ••••? ••••? ••••? ••••? ••••? •••• 2 (155SP) B ••••? ••••? ••••? ••••? ••••? •••• 3 C ••••? ••••? ••••? ••••? ••••? •••• ••••? ••••? ••••? ••••? ••••? •••• ••••? ••••? ••••? ••••? ••••? •••• (c) 6 ••••? ••••? ••••? ••••? ••••? •••• 7 a) 50% WP b) 50% HE c) Bombs/ Rockets d) WP/HC ••••? ••••? •••? ••••? ••••? •••• Figure 1-6. Example Quick Fire Plan 1-15 FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT ____________________________________________________________ __ 1-50. Table 1-2 provides an example sequence of actions and possible concurrent activities during the planning and preparation of a quick fire plan. The table is based on actions of the battalion task force commander and his FSO, but the sequence is similar at all levels. Table 1-2. Suggested Sequence of Actions for Preparing a Quick Fire Plan Maneuver Commander or S3 1. Briefly describe operation. 4. Position mortars and forward air controllers. 7. Provide detailed description of operation.

Brigade, Battalion Task Force, or Company Team FSO or Observer 2. Inform DS battalion S3 by situation report and warning order. 5. Position COLTs, Strikers, FISTs and/or observers. 8. Assess supportability of operation and inform maneuver commander. 9. Recommend guidance on attack of targets. 10. Brief observers DS Battalion S3 or Firing Unit 3. Inform DS battalion commander and assess brigade priorities 6. Send availability of firing units and ammunition. Begin positioning. 11. Position mortars as necessary. 12. Position firing units as necessary. 13. Send time check to FSO and firing units. 14. Give time check to maneuver command, aviation, mortars, and forward air controller (FAC). 15.

Send target information to mortars, CAS, aviation, FA, and naval gunfire. 18. Send schedule of targets to FA and mortars. 22. Brief company team FSOs and observers. 24. Tell maneuver commander READY on fire support plan. 25. Rehearse with all participants. 26. Review fire support plan and modify as necessary. 27. Join maneuver commander to control fire support plan or go to designated location. 16. Begin production of target data for firing units. 19. Prepare mortar ammunition in sufficient quantities. 21. Mortars and/or CAS report READY on fire plan. 17. Begin production of target data for firing units. 20. Prepare ammunition in sufficient quantities. 23. Report READY on fire support plan. 25.

Participate in rehearsals. 25. Participate in rehearsals. Triggers 1-51. A trigger is a physical location (point, object, or terrain feature) or event or action that is used in determining when to initiate fires on a target or targets, or to initiate a fire plan. Triggers are integral parts of both the maneuver and fire support plans and thus should be addressed developed (at least in general detail) during course of action (COA) development. 1-52. Triggers are often associated with both friendly and enemy force movements. In the offense, a priority target or preparation fires may be triggered by the FSO when the friendly force crosses a particular phases line 1-16 ___________________________________________________________ __ FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT or by the unit commander after he receives the report that all units are in attack positions. In the defense an FPF may be triggered by the FSO when the enemy advance reaches a certain point on the ground, or by the commander at a point when he determines the position has become potentially untenable. Fires in support of an obstacle may be triggered by an FSO or company commander only at the time that a company or battalionsized enemy force has been halted at the obstacle. 1-53. Commanders and FSOs use triggers to time fires for critical missions and maximize their effects.

The FSO ensures that primary and alternate triggering responsibilities are assigned for each critical target in the fire plan, that the person responsible for the trigger is in a position to observe the target and trigger the fires or will receive all necessary battlefield and decision-making information to make the triggering decision, and that the conditions required to initiate or withhold the trigger are clearly understood. Often, reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and TA (RISTA) activities and elements are linked to triggering decisions. As an example, a scout or forward element may be relied on to conduct the initial target identification and provide early warning to allow the FSO or observer responsible for the trigger enough time to be in position, orient equipment, make decisions, and/or initiate an AT MY COMMAND fire mission. An event may involve multiple triggers for various RISTA, maneuver, and fire support decisions. 1-54.

As an example, the approach of an enemy unit toward an intersection in the brigade deep battle area (observed by a long range surveillance unit (LRSU) unit) may trigger the launching of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to monitor its progress. The direction it takes at the intersection may trigger the movement of a maneuver company to intercept it at a given point, and serve as a warning to a battalion FSO to prepare to implement the fire plan for a particular EA. The enemy’s crossing of a bridge and subsequent entrance into canalizing terrain (observed by the UAV) may trigger the firing of SCATMINE by the battalion FSO, behind the enemy and in the EA.

The arrival of the enemy at a point in the EA (observed by a platoon observer with the responding maneuver company) may trigger the initiation of a fire plan by the company FSO. And the enemy’s breeching of the SCATMINE minefield and advance of surviving enemy forces (reported by the platoon leaders) may cause the company commander to trigger an FPF that facilitates disengagement and movement to subsequent positions. 1-55. Thus FSOs and commanders must understand the inter-relationships of the various triggers, and the communication paths required to facilitate timely sensor-shooter and sensor-C2-shooter linkages. The process for determining trigger points associated with moving targets is described in detail in Section VI, Chapter 7 of this manual. FIRE SUPPORT COORDINATING MEASURES 1-56.

The FSO coordinates all fire support impacting in the area of responsibility of his supported maneuver commander, including that requested by the supported unit. He ensures that fire support will not jeopardize troop safety, will interface with other fire support means, and will not disrupt adjacent unit operations. FSCMs help him in those efforts. FSCMs are designed to facilitate the rapid engagement of targets and at the 1-17 FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT ____________________________________________________________ __ same time provide safeguards for friendly forces. All FSCMs are drawn and lettered in black. Permissive Measures 1-57. Permissive measures are those that facilitate the attack of targets. 1-57a. Coordinated Fire Line.

The coordinated fire line (CFL) (Figure 1-7) is a line beyond which conventional surface fire support means (mortars, FA, NGF ships) may fire at any time within the zone of the establishing headquarters without additional coordination. A brigade (or higher) headquarters normally establishes it; however, an independently operating maneuver battalion may also establish it. CFL 2 BDE TF 2-4 AR TF 1-2 AR CFL 2 BDE 061600Z JUL 2 X 1 061600Z JUL 3 X 2 = Figure 1-7. Coordinated Fire Line 1-58. Fire Support Coordination Line. The appropriate land or amphibious force commanders may establish a fire support coordination line (FSCL) within their boundaries in consultation with superior, subordinate, supporting, and affected commanders.

FSCLs facilitate the expeditious attack of surface targets of opportunity beyond the coordinating measure. The FSCL applies to fires of air, land, and sea-based weapon systems using any type of ammunition. Forces attacking targets beyond an FSCL must inform all affected commanders in sufficient time to allow necessary reaction to avoid fratricide. Supporting elements attacking targets beyond the FSCL must ensure that the attack will not produce adverse effects on, or to the rear of, the line. Short of an FSCL, the appropriate land or amphibious force commander controls all air-to-ground and surface-to-surface attack operations. The FSCL should follow well-defined terrain features.

Coordination of attacks beyond the FSCL is especially critical to commanders of air, land, and special operations forces. In exceptional circumstances, the inability to conduct this coordination will not preclude the attack of targets beyond the FSCL. However, failure to do so may increase the risk of fratricide. The FCSL is depicted in Figure 1-8. 1-18 ____________________________________________________________ __ FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT FSCL X CORPS 121200Z OCT FSCL X CORPS 121200Z OCT XIX (NO) XXX X (US) Figure 1-8. Fire Support Coordination Line 1-59. Free-Fire Area. A free-fire area (FFA) is a specific designated area into which any weapon system may fire without additional coordination with the establishing headquarters.

Normally, it is established on identifiable terrain by division or higher headquarters. It is depicted in Figure 1-9. FFA X CORPS 080800 – 081200Z AUG OR EFF 080800Z AUG Figure 1-9. Free-Fire Area Restrictive Measures 1-60. Restrictive measures are those that provide safeguards for friendly forces and noncombatants, facilities, or terrain. 1-61. Restrictive Fire Area. A restrictive fire area (RFA) is an area in which specific restrictions are imposed and into which fires that exceed those restrictions may not be delivered without prior coordination with the establishing headquarters. Normally, a battalion task force or higher headquarters establishes an RFA. The RFA is depicted in Figure 1-10.

X (US) XXX XV (UK) 1-19 FM 3-09. 30 (6-30) FINAL DRAFT ____________________________________________________________ __ RFA TF 1-20 AR 210600 – 211000Z JUL NO DPICM Figure 1-10. Restrictive Fire Area 1-62. Restrictive Fire Line. A restrictive fire line (RFL) (Figure 1-11) is a line established between converging forces that prohibit fires or their effects from crossing the line without coordination with the affected force. The next higher common commander of the converging forces establishes it. XX RFL X CORPS EFF 121200Z – 131200Z OCT XIX (NO) RFL X CORPS EFF 121200Z – 131200Z OCT XX XXX X (US) XXX XV (UK) Figure 1-11. Restrictive Fire Line 1-62a.

No-Fire Line (NFL). An NFL is a line short of which artillery or ships do not fire except on request or approval of the supported commander, but beyond which they may fire at any time without danger to friendly troops. The NFL is primarily used at joint and multinational force level and is generally similar to the CFL. JP 1-02 is the source reference. 1-62b. Fire Support Safety Line (FSSL). An FSSL is a line short of which indirect fire systems do not fire except on request or approval of the supported commander who established the line, but beyond which they may fire at any time without danger to friendly troops. The FSSL is used to 1-20 X (US) ___________________________