Study Guide for Exam 2 Chapters 3and 5
Study guide for A&PI exam #2 Fall 2010- Chapters 3 and 5- Wrinn Chapter 3: Cells I. Vocabulary to know from this chapter for possible matching/multiple choice questions Hooke, Schleiden and Schwann, Virchow, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, diffusion, membrane potential, gene, exon, intron, cell differentiation, apoptosis II. Know these parts of the cell and their basic functions for matching or multiple choice questions: -Membrane proteins- types: integral and peripheral -Membrane junctions- types: tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions -Cell adhesion molecules- what do they do? Membrane receptors- contact and chemical signaling -Cytoplasmic organelles- what does each do? oMitochondria oRibosomes oEndoplasmic reticulum (ER)- rough and smooth oGolgi apparatus oLysosomes oCytoskeleton- microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate fibers. oCellular extensions- flagella, cilia, microvilli oNucleus ?Which mature body cell does not have one? ?What is the function of the nuclear envelope (membrane)? ?What is the function of nucleoli? ?What is chromatin? -What are the three types of RNA and what is each used for? III. What are the stages of Mitosis and what occurs at each? this could be a potential essay question as well in which you could use diagrams to help explain). Also, what is cytokinesis? IV. Know the differences between active vs. passive transport and how the subtypes of each work oSubtypes of passive transport- simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion- carrier mediated and channel mediated, osmosis oBe able to identify isotonic, hypertonic or hypotonic solutions and know what happens to a cell placed in each of these types of solutions. oSubtypes of active transport- primary active transport- main system = K+/Na+ pump to maintain the higher gradient of K+ nside the cell and Na+ outside the cell, secondary active transport, vesicular transport. ?Types of vesicular transport: exocytosis, endocytosis, transcytosis, substance trafficking; be able to define them and give an example of what endocytosis and exocytosis might be used to transport. •Know the types of endocytosis- phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis/transcytosis V. Resting membrane potential- potential essay question or multiple choice question(s) -What factors affect how K+ and Na+ ions crossing the cell membrane?
Ultimately how is the proper resting membrane potential maintained? Include in your discussion things like chemical and electrical gradients and active transport. You can use a diagram to help you explain if you wish. Basics: For proper cell function, more K+ must be maintained inside the cell, and more Na+ must be maintained outside the cell. However, K+ inside the cell moves out of the cell membrane easily, moving down its concentration (chemical) gradient to the outside, although the outside of the cell is more electrically positive, slowing movement of K+.
Na+ doesn’t diffuse into the cell membrane as easily, but once through it is moving down its concentration (chemical) gradient and is attracted to the higher negative charge within the cell. Ultimately, active transport using the K+/Na+ pump (fueled by ATP) is required to maintain the proper K+/Na+ balance by pushing Na+ back out and pulling K+ back in. V. DNA synthesis- for potential essay or multiple choice questions – Explain how DNA synthesis occurs. You may use a diagram to help you explain if you wish.
Be sure to include in your explanation helicase, replication fork, nucleotides, DNA polymerase and DNA ligase. VI. Protein synthesis- for potential essay or multiple choice questions -Explain how the process of transcription occurs, be sure to include in your explanation: RNA polymerase, promoter, mRNA, RNA nucleotides and termination signal. (possible essay) -Be able to transcribe a DNA sequence into an RNA sequence -Understand the basic process of translation. (possible multiple choice) oWhat are codons? oHow are ribosomes involved? oWhat is tRNA?
Chapter 5: Integumentary system Vocabulary to know from this chapter for possible matching/multiple choice questions Epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, errector pili II. Things to know for possible matching/multiple choice questions -What do each of the cells of the epidermis do? Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Epidermal dendritic cells, Tactile (Merkel cells) -What are the functions of the layers of the epidermis?
Stratum basale, Stratum spinosum, Stratum granulosum, Stratum lucidum, Stratum corneum -What are the functions of the layers of the dermis? Papillary layer, Reticular layer -What three substances determine basic skin color? -What medical conditions can different skin colors be diagnostic of? -What are the different sweat gland types and what functions are each responsible for? Eccrine sweat glands, Apocrine sweat glands, Ceruminous (wax) glands, Mammary glands -What is the importance of sebaceous (oil) glands? What substance is hair largely made of? -What are the three layers that make up hair? medulla, cortex, cuticle -What is hirsutism and its cause? -What causes alopecia and what causes true male pattern baldness? -What is alopecia areata and what is its cause? -What are some changes in nail appearance and what conditions can these changes diagnose? -What are some of the protective functions of the skin and how does each work? oChemical barriers oPhysical/mechanical barriers oBiological barriers How does the skin protect the body against extreme temperatures? -What types of cutaneous sensation are there? -What are some of the metabolic functions of the skin? -How does the skin act as a blood reservoir for the body? -What are the three types of skin cancer, how serious is each and how is each treated? Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. -What are some of the dangers for burn victims? -What are the three types of burns and what characterizes each? -What germ layers do the epidermis and dermis/hypodermis develop from?