Understanding the Managers Job and Work Environment
Having reliable Managers that understand ethical and social aspects of an organization, and contemporary management challenges and opportunities are what is needed for a successful Job and Work environment. When it comes to management there are four kinds of managers that all serve special purposes which are top managers, middle managers, first-line managers, and team leaders. Top managers are the ones in higher position hence the name top, they are executives responsible for the overall direction of the organization.
Their duties include developing attitudes for commitment and ownership, creating a positive atmosphere by words and action, and keeping track of the how the company is being run. Top managers can also be known as Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Chief Operational Officer (COO), Chief Information Officer (CIO), and Chairperson of the Board, President, Vice president, or Corporate head. Under the top manager is the middle manager. The duties that a middle manager posse is responsibility for setting objectives that is in line with the top manager’s goals and thoughts for the organization.
They also coordinate and link groups and departments, monitor and manage, and make sure changes wanted by the top manager are done. First- line managers are managers who train and supervise the performance of non-mangerial employees who are responsible for producing the company’s product or service. This includes people including: Office managers, Shift supervisors, Department managers, Foreperson, Crew leaders, and Store managers. First-line manager are normally people who were employees in the past and were promoted from line position.
Managers that are on all four of the different levels of the organization engage in different amounts of time when it comes to the four managerial functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. When it comes to planning it focuses on selecting the most suitable goals for the organizational and the most efficient way on how to achieve those goals. Organizing involves deciding the tasks and how it may relate. Which allows employees to work together to accomplish the planned goals. In regards to leading, managers are placed there to motivate and coordinate employees to work together to achieve set goals in an organizational.
When controlling, managers are placed there monitor and measure how much of the goal that the organizational has attained. To be very successful all managers must have three critical skills: technical skill, interpersonal skill, and conceptual skill. Technical skill includes having an understanding as well as demonstrating proficiency in a precise workplace activity. Example of technical skills includes things such as utilizing computer word processer program, constructing budgets, or forming a presentation. When it comes to the different levels of management the technical skills used will be different.
Middle managers are likely to use more technical skills when it comes to planning and organizing, while on the other hand top managers need to have skills that will help them to understand the financial workings of the organization. First-level managers need skill in scheduling workers and preparing budgets. Interpersonal skill deals with human relations, or how the manager is able to interact effectively with the organizational members. When it comes to management communication is a critical part of interpersonal skill, and possessing the inability to communicate effectively with others can inhibit the progression for managers.
Managers who have excellent technical skill, but poor interpersonal skill are unlikely to succeed in their jobs. This skill is critical when talking about all the levels of management. To posses conceptual skill as a manager means that one is able to see the organizational as a large picture. This includes comprehending different parts of a organization come together . This type of skill is most important when it comes to attaining a position of top manager, because they are there ones who are suppose to hold the idea of coming up with the greater picture.
For many years studies have been ordained regarding on establishing what has made management what it is today and what and who to give credit to. There are three main categories of management which include, Scientific Management, Bureaucratic and Administrative Management, as well as Hunan Relations Management. Scientific management involves studying as well as testing different work methods to come up with the best way to do a job. This idea is said to be founded by a man by the name of Fredrick W. Taylor.
He felt like there was a huge problem when it came to how things were done now when it came to the modern society of management. He said, “Workers didn’t work hard enough. He called such laziness “soldiering”. ” This gave him the idea of the four scientific principles. The first one was to develop a science for each element of a man’s work, which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method. Second was scientifically select, train, and develop each worker rather than passively leaving them to train themselves. Third, cooperate with the workers to ensure that the scientifically developed methods are being followed.
Fourth, Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks. These four principles were enforced in several factories, and as a result it increased the productivity of that factory. Henry Ford used scientific management in the creation of the first automobile. Bureaucratic management stemmed from the political party of bureaucracy. It was formed by a man by the name of Max Weber who wanted to enhance the idea of scientific management.
Bureaucratic management is focused on dividing organizations into hierarchies, establishing strong lines of authority and control. Max Weber was a German sociologist and historian that composed about how the bureaucratic management rose from other things like feudalism. According to Weber, “bureacracy is a particular type of administrative structure developed through rational-legal authority. ” Bureaucracy aim is to have Qualification-based hiring, Merit-based promotion, Chain of command, Division of labor, impartial application of rules and procedures, Recorded in writing, and having managers being separate from owners.
Unfortunately, bureaucracy is usually inefficient and can be highly resistant to changes. Administrative management was created by a Frenchmen by the name of Henri Fayol he was one of the most influential contributors to modern concept of management. He proposed the five primary functions of management which were planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. Fayol thought that one could develop theories then teach them and they will be very effective. Fayol came up with the fourteen principles of management.
Specialization of labor, which meant specializing, encourages continuous improvement in skills and the development of improvements in methods. Authority, giving the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Discipline, refers to no slacking, bending of rules. The workers should be obedient and respectful of the organization. Unity of command means each employee has one and only one boss. Unity of direction, a single mind generates a single plan and all play their part in that plan. Subordination of Individual Interests means that when at work, only work things should be pursued or thought about.
Remuneration, employees receive fair payment for services, not what the company can get away with. Centralization, consolidation of management functions. Decisions are made from the top. Chain of Superiors (line of authority), having a formal chain of command running from top to bottom of the organization, like military. Order, all materials and personnel have a prescribed place, and they must remain there so pretty much remaining neat. Equity, being equal to all. Personnel Tenure, having limited turnover of personnel. Initiative, thinking out a plan and do what it takes to make it happen.
Esprit de corps, having harmony, cohesion among personnel. Human Relations Management was founded by Mary Parker Follet. She felt as if the conflict should be embraced and not always disregarded. She wanted this so that both manager and employee could find some place to reach common ground. She was also known as the mother of scientific management. She often stated, “The study of human relations in business and the study of the technology of operating are bound up together. ” Along with Mary P. Follet there others who contributed to the theory of human relations management.
Elton Mayo was part of the Hawthorne studies. In his findings he came to the conclusion that worker’s attitudes as well as feeling do affect the way they work. Also he found that financials don’t always play a big part when it comes to workers being motivated it is behavior that motivates. Another contributor to this theory was a man who went by the name of Chester Barnard. He was a president of New Jersey Bell Telephone. He wanted to prove that there was an importance of willing cooperation in organizations. “Organizations endure, however, in proportion to the breadth of the morality by which they are governed.
Thus the endurance of organization depends upon the quality of leadership; and that quality derives from the breadth of the morality upon which it rests”. Barnard was a firm believer that management should consist of efficiency vs. effectiveness. Effectiveness meaning being able to accomplish certain goals and he defined efficiency by an organization as the degree to which that organization is able to satisfy the motives of the individuals. He had a theory of incentive. In this theory he saw two ways of convincing subordinates to cooperate: tangible incentives and persuasion.
Four general and specific inducements were material inducements such as money, personal non-material opportunities for distinction, desirable physical conditions of work, and ideal Benefactions, such as pride of workmanship. All of these people made great contributions to human relations management. In conclusion, having reliable Managers that understand ethical and social aspects of an organization, and contemporary management challenges and opportunities are what is needed for a successful Job and Work environment. This allows one to be the best they can be at what they do and run a business very smoothly.