iSSUES IN FUDAMENTALISM| | | NOUTHETIC COUNSELING:FUNDAMENTALISM IN PASTORAL CARE| | | | Paras Tayade M. Th II Christian Ministry 16/07/2010 Contents Introduction3 1. Understanding Fundamentalism3 1. 1 Origin of the Fundamentalist Movement3 1. 2 Five Fundamentals of the Fundamentalist Movement5 1. 3 Fundamentalism- Definition6 2. Nouthetic Counseling8 2. 1 Background to Nouthetic Counseling8 2. 2 Assumptions of Nouthetic Counseling10 2. 2. 1. Foundation of Nouthetic counseling10 2. 2. 2 Aim of Nouthetic Counseling10 2. 2. 3 Need for Nouthetic Counseling11 2. 3 Method of Nouthetic Counseling11 2. 3. Change12 2. 3. 2 Confrontation12 2. 3. 3 Care12 3. Nouthetic counseling in a Fundamentalistic Framework13 3. 1 Reaction13 3. 2 Literalism and Legalism14 3. 3 Separatist Attitude15 4. Fundamentalism in Pastoral Care16 Conclusion17 Bibliography Introduction Fundamentalism is a word that is often associated with religious violence. One is reminded of babri masjid as the Hindu fundamentalists demolished it, or the horrifying images of the planes that were high jacked and crashed into the twin towers by Islamic fundamentalists. We also hear of Christian pro-life fundamentalists who blow up abortion clinics.
Though the word fundamentalism has acquired a negative connotation, its roots go deeper than what the word is generally perceived to be. The attempt through this paper would be to trace the history of fundamentalism and correlate it with Nouthetic Counseling (a form of biblical counseling) as it operates within the spheres of pastoral care and counseling. Let us start by understanding what fundamentalism is. 1. Understanding Fundamentalism The term ‘Fundamentalism’ in its original usage was not considered a derogatory term, rather it’s emphasis was on “stating what was essential, fundamental or necessary to the faith. Over a period of time the term fundamentalism acquired a negative connotation. In order to understand fundamentalism we need to first of all examine it’s origin. 1. 1 Origin of the Fundamentalist Movement According to Ruthven the term ‘Fundamentalism’ first appeared in early part of the twentieth century in “Southern California, one of America’s most rapidly developing regions. ” The term ‘fundamentalism’ was taken from a series of 12 volumes which were written from 1910-1915 by a number of British and U.
S scholars and ministers, entitled “The Fundamentals: A Testimony of Truth”. These books were sponsored by two wealthy brothers Milton and Lyman Steward who sent these free of cost to Protestant pastors, evangelists, missionaries, theological professors, theological students, Sunday school workers and lay ministers. The aim was to highlight the “fundamentals” of Christian faith and to make material available to ministers so as to help them “in affirming and reaffirming the fundamental truths of Christianity in the face of ever increasing attacks against it. In 1920, Curtis Lee Law, a Baptist journalist coined the term “Fundamentalist” in his article which was published in Watchman-Examiner. In this, Law stated “We suggest that those who still cling to the great fundamentals and who mean to do battle royal for the fundamentals shall be called ‘fundamentalists’”. ‘The battle for the fundamentals’ that Law referred to and the ‘ever increasing attacks’ on Christianity that the Steward Brothers were concerned with, was essentially a reactionary movement against the growing secularism, liberalism and modernism.
According to Dr. George Ninan, the ‘fundamentalist movement’ was a response to three challenges that the Church was facing. First, the idea of evolution as propounded by Charles Darwin; secondly, the issue of modern biblical criticism, where in the authority of the Bible was questioned and thirdly, ‘anti-supernaturalism’ which sought to make miracles in the Bible redundant. These challenges were countered by affirming five points which were considered to be fundamental to Christian faith. 1. 2 Five Fundamentals of the Fundamentalist Movement
According to George Marsden fundamentalist movement was clearly “a multifaceted movement”. Other scholars have concurred with this in stating that “the origins of fundamentalism are clearly diverse” and “that [the] fundamentalists were not a homogeneous group. ” However, over a period of time, statement with five point statement was formulated and these were accepted as the basic fundamentals of the fundamentalist movement. These are “1) biblical inerrancy 2) the deity and virgin birth of Christ 3) Christ’s substitutionary atonement 4) His bodily resurrection and 5) second coming. Out of these, the doctrine of biblical inerrancy is the foundational statement for the fundamentalists. The other doctrines are based and substantiated on the basis of this principle. A look at the five fundamentals mentioned above makes one ponder about what the difference between mainline Protestantism and fundamentalism is; since both would equally affirm that these five points are essential for the Christian faith. Bayani Valenzuela “thinks that the theological difference between the fundamentalists and mainline Protestants is not so much in doctrine as in mentality. Similarly in Martin Marty’s view “Fundamentalism (is) not simply a reassertion of classic Christianity or Protestant Orthodoxy”, on the contrary, he argues that “fundamentalism picked up and exaggerated certain old evangelical themes (in order to promote their own agenda). ” Having looked at the origin of the fundamentalist movement and the five fundamentals of this movement we can now move to define fundamentalism. 1. 3 Fundamentalism- Definition The task of defining and unpacking the term fundamentalism is a daunting one. For a simple reason that fundamentalism can be argued both ways, that is positively and negatively.
Take for example, the way the conference on “The Psychology of Fundamentalism,” held in Chicago describes it. Religious fundamentalism is one of the most powerful forces in the world today. In some ways, fundamentalism improves people’s lives. For many individuals, their strict religious beliefs give them a sense of meaning and encourage them to be caring and benevolent. But for others, fundamentalism can have dire consequences for adherents, as well as for those deemed “enemies” of the belief system. One of the reasons why there is ambiguity in clearly defining fundamentalism is, it’s changed meaning.
As mentioned earlier, fundamentalism in its original usage was not a derogatory term but has acquired a negative connotation over a period of time. As John Stott states “the term [Fundamentalism, though] respectable in its origins, has [now] become almost ‘a synonym for obscurantism. ’” In same line Howard Marshall argues that “if fundamentalism retained the meaning of upholding and defending the fundamentals of the faith…many of us today would be happy to use it”. In the light of the above statements fundamentalism in this paper will be defined as per its contemporary understanding and not as its original usage.
The authors of the book ‘Strong religion: The rise of fundamentalism around the world’ define fundamentalism as “a discernable pattern of religious militance by which self styled ‘true believers’ attempt to arrest the erosion of religious community, and create viable alternatives to secular institutions and behaviors. ” Clinton Stockwell, quoting from the American Heritage Dictionary, defines fundamentalism as a “Protestant movement characterized by right adherence to fundamental or basic principles. He further states that “Fundamentalism often combines literalism with [absolute] certainty…the belief that scripture, and fundamentalist interpretations of it, reveal truth on every conceivable topic. ” According to S. D King, “fundamentalism is characterized by an inerrant biblical hermeneutic, a separatist attitude, and loyalty to an authority-centered group. ” Having looked at the various definitions, one can clearly state that, though there is no single definition that will encompass all the features or characteristics of fundamentalism; we nevertheless have some common denominators which help us to unfold this term.
First of all, fundamentalism is a reaction to modernism, or the eroding moral values in our society. Secondly, it places a strong emphasis on the literal interpretation of the Bible, as biblical inerrancy is the foundational doctrine of fundamentalism. Thirdly, inherent in the fundamentalist mindset is the idea that one group [the one which agrees with their interpretation] is better than all the others. At this point it must also be mentioned that though the fundamentalist movement began in the western Protestant context, today it is a phenomenon that is found in all major religions.
Also the three aspects mentioned above are common features in all of them. Having understood what fundamentalism is we can now turn to Nouthethic Counseling and see how it fits in a fundamentalist framework. 2. Nouthetic Counseling Nouthetic Counseling is a form of counseling that is built on the principle that “the Scriptures are the counselor’s textbook…” and is all sufficient to deal with any and every problem that a counselor might face in the course of counseling. Furthermore, no other source is needed for a Christian counselor.
According to Jay Adams the founder of Nouthetic counseling the term ‘Nouthetic’ is derived from the Greek verb noutheteo (or the noun ? nouthesis) used in the Bible which mean ‘to admonish, to warn, to teach or to counsel. ’ In order to understand nouthetic counseling, we need to be aware of the historical backdrop that has led to the rise of nouthetic counseling. 2. 1 Background to Nouthetic Counseling Jay Adams begins his book ‘Competent to Counsel’ with an introduction, in which he describes his struggles as a young pastor trying to counsel and minister to people.
According to him, he had “learned little about counseling in seminary…and virtually had no knowledge of what to do. ” Adams narrates an incident when a man came to him for counseling and all that Adams could do was “chat with him awkwardly” without giving him any genuine help. A month later that man died. This incident had a deep impact on Adams’ life and he felt that he had “failed” as a counselor. In his effort to improve and equip himself for counseling, Adams “borrowed and devoured as many of the current volumes on counseling as [he] could. In spite of all the reading and learning of new techniques, he still felt incapable and unprepared and soon began “referring nearly all his counselees with serious problems to psychiatrists…” With the passing of time he soon developed a “hit-or-miss pattern of counseling” and out of this grew an “on-the-spot application of scriptural exhortations. ” Adams noticed that the more directive he became in telling the counselee what God expected of them, the more successful he became as a counselor.
In the years that followed, Adams dedicated himself to developing a biblical method of counseling and discovered “…how much the bible has to say about counseling”. He further states that using the Bible in counseling yields far better results than the use of any secular psychology or theory. Thus according to him what every Christian counselor and minister needs is a thorough knowledge of the Bible as well as to “expose, reject and oppose every other system, based on other sources of information. ”
It is from this background that Nouthetic counseling came into existence. Having looked at the origin we will now examine the basic assumptions that are held in Nouthetic counseling. 2. 2 Assumptions of Nouthetic Counseling Nouthetic counseling is built on certain assumptions, on the basis of which it claims to be the best way to counsel people (Christians). Following are some of these assumptions. 2. 2. 1. Foundation of Nouthetic counseling Nouthetic counseling assumes that there are only two approaches to counsel someone.
One is based on ‘divine counsel’ and the second on ‘devilish counsel’. This polarization is apparent when Adams states “It is clear…from Adam’s time…there have been two counsels in this world: divine counsel and devilish counsel; the two are in competition. The Bible’s position is that all counsel that is not revelational (Biblical), or based upon God’s revelation, is Satanic. ” Thus, Adams makes a clear dichotomy between biblical truth and worldly truth. For him, worldly truth at best is useless and at worst is satanic.
In this either-or system there is no middle path. According to him, psychiatry and psychotherapy fall in the second category, for he writes, “In my opinion, advocating, allowing and practicing psychiatric and psychoanalytical dogmas within the church is… pagan and heretical” 2. 2. 2 Aim of Nouthetic Counseling For Adams, Nouthetic counseling, and for that matter any counseling, has one aim which is to bring a change in the life of the counselee. As per his presupposition, every human being either belongs to God or the devil.
The Aim of Nouthetic counseling is to enable those who are with God to walk more closely with Him and those do not belong to God, need to be told about God. If this is the case, how does one then counsel a non Christian? Adams reply to this would be “…counseling becomes truly nouthetic only when the counselee is a Christian. ” For a non Christian the starting point in counseling is telling him to “believe the gospel. ” So, irrespective of what the counselee’s problem is, counseling can’t proceed until and unless “he has repented and believed the gospel. ” 2. 2. 3 Need for Nouthetic Counseling
As per nouthetic counseling, the needs of the counselee can be classified into two categories. One is “how to love God? ” and second “how to love your neighbor? ” Adams further states “we spend little time discussing counselee problems about things; it is in relationship with God and with other persons that counseling problems develop. ” So as per Nouthetic Counseling, the issue that lies at the heart of every problem is how much or how less we love God and our neighbor. Adams is of the view that “All nonorganically caused problems are considered to be hamartigenic (sin-caused).
Sinful living is at the heart of the counseling focus. ” 2. 3 Method of Nouthetic Counseling Since man’s basic problem is sin and every counseling issue is rooted in either ‘loving God’ or ‘loving your neighbor’. A nouthetic counselor engages in counseling in the following three ways. 2. 3. 1 Change According to Adams “the fundamental purpose of nouthetic counseling is to effect personality and behavioral change. ” How does one bring about this change? By recognizing that man is sinful and at the heart of his problems lies the issue of his rebellion against God.
Nouthetic counseling presupposes that there is ‘something wrong with the person… (Counselee)” And the task of the counselor is to point or drawn attention of the counselee to that particular area which needs to be changed. 2. 3. 2 Confrontation According to Adams, a biblical change can be brought about by “person to person verbal confrontation. ” For him, in counseling, the “what” is more important than the “why. ” A nouthetic counselor will not diverge in the past of the counselee and ask why something has gone wrong.
On the contrary, his focus will be on what the counselee has been doing and what can be done to rectify the situation. And since the focus is on “correcting sinful behavior patterns” the best way is to confront a person with regard to lifestyle and to the corrective measure that word of God demands. 2. 3. 3 Care Nouthetic counseling is “motivated by love and deep concern” for the client. According to Adams, it is vital that a counselor always keeps in mind that nouthetic counseling is done for the benefit of the counselee and for “the glory of God. ”
Analysis and examination of Nouthetic Counseling and its various assumptions as well as methods being considered, we will now see how nouthetic counseling fits a fundamentalistic framework. 3. Nouthetic counseling in a Fundamentalistic Framework As stated above fundamentalism can essentially be characterized in three ways. First, as a reaction against modernism; secondly, it’s emphasis on literalistic and legalistic biblical hermeneutics and thirdly, its separatism attitude. The endeavor in this section would be to analyze how nouthetic counseling fits in a fundamentalistic framework. 3. 1 Reaction
There is a general consensus among scholars that “fundamentalism” was a reaction to the modernism and its attack on the Christian faith. According to Clinton Stockwell “fundamentalism was a reaction to higher criticism, modernism, evolution and theological liberalism. ” The 12 volume publication entitled The Fundamentals was essentially an attempt “to reemphasize the “fundamentals” of the orthodox Christian faith…” so as to withstand the on slaughter of liberalism. Similarly Nouthetic Counseling was born as a reaction against the use of psychology and secular theories in the area of pastoral counseling.
David Powlison, the editor of the Journal of Biblical Counseling and also a staff member of the Christian Counseling and Education foundation, an organization started by Jay Adams states that “Modern psychotherapy is simply the attempt to do face-to-face pastoral work in service to different gods, different ideals, different diagnoses, [and] a different gospel. ” He further states “that various psychological theories agree on only one thing: that human dysfunctions can be solved without regard to God or God’s design for humanity. ”
Adams, in his book Competent to Counsel, has a segment entailed “Freud an Enemy, Not a Friend” in which he says “[Freud] provided a philosophical and pseudoscientific rationale for irresponsible people to use to justify themselves. ” In response to this, Adams presents Nouthetic Counseling as a redemptive step to rescue pastoral ministry from the contamination of secular theories. 3. 2 Literalism and Legalism The second characteristic of the fundamentalist movement was its adherence to a literalist and legalistic reading of the scriptures.
Harris in quoting Barr in his book Fundamentalism and Evangelism states that the Bible itself is not at the “core of fundamentalism, rather it is a particular kind of religion which fundamentalists believe follows from the acceptance of Biblical authority, but which in fact they impose upon scriptures thus skewing its meaning. ” So according to Barr, for a fundamentalist, it is not the bible but their particular interpretation of the Bible that is important. Adam’s approach in handling the scriptures clearly validates the above statement.
For example Adams uses the book of Proverbs and tries to prove that directive, confrontation counseling as done in Nouthetic Counseling is biblical as opposed to non-directive, client centered counseling for which there is no Biblical warranty. Donald Capps in his critique on Jay Adams has said that “Adams has a distorted view of the moral perspective of proverbs” and in no way does the book of Proverbs “provide [a] clear cut support for directive counseling that Adams thinks they do. ” 3. 3 Separatist Attitude
According to James Barr the author of Fundamentalism one of the negative characteristics of this movement is “a sharp distinction between ‘nominal’ and ‘true’ Christian (i. e. , fundamentalist). ” Similarly Hinson argues that “[The fundamentalists] exhibit an exclusivistic mentality- that is, that only their views are Christian. ” Adams clearly reveals this kind of a separatist attitude in his counseling approach. According to him “It is only the Christian…who can be counseled. ” He further states that since unbelievers do not know God they can never experience change in the true sense and thus it is “impossible to counsel an unbeliever. He even goes to the extent of saying “that counselors must not tell any unsaved counselee that Christ died for him…” Thus we can see that nouthetic counseling clearly fits in a fundamentalistic framework. 4. Fundamentalism in Pastoral Care Based on the views presented above, we can now draw a few implications for pastoral care. Traditionally, pastoral care is described as an act of “healing, sustaining, guiding, reconciling and nurturing. ” But when fundamentalism creeps in more damage is done than good. S. D.
King comments that “Fundamentalist pastoral care is primarily distinguished by its pervasive literalistic and legalistic use of the Bible as an authoritative pastoral resource for interpreting, diagnosing, and responding to human problems and crisis. ” The key issue, when we are considering pastoral care and fundamentalism is the use of the Bible as a spiritual resource in pastoral care and counseling. Various pastoral theologians like Seward Hiltner, Wayne Oates and Caroll Wise have warned of the danger of misusing the bible in pastoral ministry.
According to Oates “Indiscriminate use of the Bible in pastoral care will do more harm than good. ” Jay Adams in one of his books states “The Bible condemns complaining [no specific scripture is mentioned]…Complaining regardless of who is complained against ultimately amounts to expressing dissatisfaction with God. ” He further argues that even to doubt is a sign of lack of faith. While making such statements, Adams ignores a large portion of the scriptures, particularly the Psalms in which the Psalmist openly expresses his inner most feelings which include both complains and doubts.
Vinoth Ramachandra is of the opinion, that a true display of our emotions and feelings [even the negative ones] before God is not an indicator of a weak faith, rather a sign of a bold faith which asserts that God can handle our outburst. According to him “…it is those who suppress their doubts under a litany of jolly choruses who may well be guilty of unbelief: for they refuse to believe that God can handle their rage. ” In Stockwell’s observation “The danger of the fundamentalist mind is its conviction that reality is bound to follow ideology and not vice versa.
Facts can therefore simply be disregarded. ” Adams’ approach does not take the reality of the counselee’s situation seriously rather his starting point is his own interpretation of the scripture. Thus a fundamentalist approach such as Jay Adams’ is legalist rather than life affirming. It “tends to reduce Scripture to legalistic prescriptions…” A fundamentalist approach in pastoral care can never be Biblical in the true sense as its emphasis is on ‘law of the letter’ rather than ‘spirit of the law. ’ Conclusion
The fundamentalist movement began on a positive note, as an attempt to highlight and re-emphasize the fundamentals of the Christian faith. Unfortunately, today it has acquired a negative connotation due to its hard-line legalistic outlook. Similarly, Adams’ Nouthetic Counseling was an attempt to re-establish the Biblical basis for counseling, but due to his misplaced zeal he ended up rejecting even the good that secular psychologies had to offer. As pastoral counselors / ministers, we have to constantly deal with the changing value systems of this world.
The challenge before us is to take that which is good and use it for a higher purpose. As long as we are on this side of eternity we will constantly feel the tension of being “in the world… but not of the world. ” [John 17:11, 16] Books * Adams, Jay Edward. The Christian Counselor’s Wordbook: A Primer of Nouthetic Counseling. Grand Rapids: P & R Publishing, 1981. * Adams, Jay Edward,A theology of Christian counseling: more than redemption. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986. * Adams, Jay Edward, Competent to counsel: introduction to nouthetic counseling. New Jersey: Zondervan, 1986. Capps, Donald. Biblical Approaches to Pastoral Counseling. Philadelphia: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2003. * Carter, John D. , Bruce Narramore, and S. Bruce Narramore. The integration of psychology and theology: an introduction. Grand Rapid : Zondervan, 1979. * Clinebell, Howard John. Basic Types of Pastoral Care and Counseling: Resources for the Ministry of Healing and Growth. USA: Abingdon Press, 1984. * Hurding, Roger. The Bible and Counselling. London: Hodder & Stoughton,1992. * ——– Roots and shoots: a guide to counselling and psychotherapy.
London:Hodder & Stoughton, 1984 * Ninan, A. George, Church & society: (challenges & responses in the 21st century). Ed. Rajendra K. Sail and Akshay Sail. Bombay Urban Industrial League for Development (BUILD), 2001. * Ramachandra, Vinoth. Gods that fail: modern idolatry & Christian mission. Sri Lanka: New Life Literature Pvt. Ltd. , 1997. Dictionary * Sing. “Fundamentalist Pastoral care” Fundamentalist Pastoral Care. In Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling, Edited by Hunter, Rodney. Bangalore: Theological Publications in India, 2007, 448-450.
Online Books * Almond, Gabriel Abraham, R. Scott Appleby, and Emmanuel Sivan. 2003. Strong religion: the rise of fundamentalisms around the world. University of Chicago Press. http://books. google. co. in/books? id=wGFAL3oGmg4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=strong+religion&hl=en&ei=9mg9TKj_H4yevgPe96mKDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false (10/07/2010) * Harris, Harriet A.. Fundamentalism and Evangelicals. 2008 http://books. google. co. in/books? d=nTsq_ktTQkcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Fundamentalism+and+Evangelicals+harris&client=firefox-a&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false (12/07/2010) * Ruthven, Malise. Fundamentalism: the search for meaning. Oxford University Press. http://books. google. co. in/books? id=SfKdjML7A9QC&dq=search+for+meaning,+fundamentalism&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&ei=iWQ9TObqBIGCvgOg_8WADw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false (4/07/2010) * Keating, Karl. 1988.
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Eerdmans Publishing, June http://books. google. co. in/books? d=U8ZDvyW4hk0C;printsec=frontcover;dq=Suing+for+America%27s+soul;hl=en;ei=9og9TO-2O5LcvQOU8eHzDg;sa=X;oi=book_result;ct=result;resnum=1;ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage;q;f=false(4/07/2010) Online Articles * Adams, Jay Edward. 1974a. “Use of the Scriptures in counseling. ” Bibliotheca sacra 131, no. 521 (January 1): 14-25. . http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=8;hid=107;sid=399b4595-a75e-4780-aff0-bbba6a6085e8%40sessionmgr112 (5/7/2007) * ———. “Use of the Scriptures in counseling. ” Bibliotheca sacra 131, no. 522 (April 1): 99-113. http://web. bscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=8;hid=107;sid=399b4595-a75e-4780-aff0-bbba6a6085e8%40sessionmgr112(3/07/2010) * ———. “Use of the Scriptures in counseling. ” Bibliotheca sacra 131, no. 523 (July 1): 195-208. http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=8;hid=107;sid=399b4595-a75e-4780-aff0-bbba6a6085e8%40sessionmgr112 (3/07/2010) * ———“Use of the Scriptures in counseling. ” Bibliotheca sacra 131, no. 524 (October 1): 291-302. http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=8;hid=107;sid=399b4595-a75e-4780-aff0-bbba6a6085e8%40sessionmgr112, (5/07/2010) Dayton, Donald W. 1976. “Battle for the Bible : renewing the inerrancy debate. ” Christian Century 93, no. 36 (November 10): 976-980. http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=7;hid=8;sid=78747b7b-c872-43a9-b0ec-294f531e5d73%40sessionmgr11(5/07/2010) * ———“ Evangelicalism Without Fundamentalism. ” Religion online. October 7. http://www. religion-online. org/showarticle. asp? title=1786. (5/7/2010) * Farley, Edward. “ Fundamentalism: a theory. ” Cross Currents 55, no. 3 (Fall 2005): 378-403. http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? id=12;hid=8;sid=78747b7b-c872-43a9-b0ec-294f531e5d73%40sessionmgr1(6/7/2010) * Friedman, Mike, and W Steven Rholes. 2008. ” Religious fundamentalism and terror management. ” International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 18, no. 1 (January 1): 36-52. http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=12;hid=107;sid=399b4595-a75e-4780-aff0-bbba6a6085e8%40sessionmgr112(6/7/2010) * Hinson, E Glenn. 1981. “Neo-fundamentalism : an interpretation and critique. ” Baptist History and Heritage 16, no. 2 (April 1): 33-42. http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? id=9;hid=107;sid=399b4595-a75e-4780-aff0-bbba6a6085e8%40sessionmgr112(6/7/2010) * Leonard, Bill J. 1982a. “The origin and character of fundamentalism. ” Review ; Expositor 79, no. 1 (December 1): 5-17. http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=11;hid=8;sid=78747b7b-c872-43a9-b0ec-294f531e5d73%40sessionmgr11(6/7/2010) * LeVine, Mark. “ What is fundamentalism, and how do we get rid of it? ” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 42, no. 1 (December 1): 15-28 http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=12;hid=8;sid=78747b7b-c872-43a9-b0ec-294f531e5d73%40sessionmgr11. 6/7/2010) * Marty, Martin E. 1982. “Fundamentalism as a social phenomenon. ”Review ; Expositor 79, no. 1 (December 1): 19-29. http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=12;hid=113;sid=f632743b-fffe-4aa0-a971-0653566070ef%40sessionmgr111 (6/7/2010) * Mercado, Leonardo N. 2001. “Muslim and Christian fundamentalism in the Philippines. ” Dialogue ; Alliance 14: 128-142. http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=9;hid=107;sid=399b4595-a75e-4780-aff0-bbba6a6085e8%40sessionmgr112 (6/7/2010) * Sandeen, Ernest R. 967. “ Toward a historical interpretation of the origins of fundamentalism. ” Church History 36, no. 1 (March 1): 66-83. http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=11;hid=107;sid=399b4595-a75e-4780-aff0-bbba6a6085e8%40sessionmgr112 (6/7/2010) * ———. 1978a. Problem of authority in American fundamentalism. Review ; Expositor 75, no. 2 (March 1): 211-218. http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=8;hid=107;sid=399b4595-a75e-4780-aff0-bbba6a6085e8%40sessionmgr112(6/7/2010) * Stockwell, Clinton E. 2008. Fundamentalisms and the shalom of God: an analysis of contemporary expressions of fundamentalism in Christianity, Judaism and Islam. ” Journal of Latin American Theology 3, no. 1 (January 1): 44-70. http://search. ebscohost. com/login. aspx? direct=true;db=rfh;AN=ATLA0001665909;site=ehost-live (2/7/2010) * Watt, David Harrington. 2007. “The meaning and end of fundamentalism. ”Religious Studies Review 33, no. 4 (October 1): 269-273. http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=13;hid=113;sid=f632743b-fffe-4aa0-a971-0653566070ef%40sessionmgr111(2/7/2010)