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“Study of Physico-Chemical Properties of Some Early Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) Varieties for Pulp Processing”

“Study of Physico-Chemical Properties of Some Early Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) Varieties for Pulp Processing”

“STUDY OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME EARLY MANGO (Mangifera indica L. ) VARIETIES FOR PULP PROCESSING” by C. S. Desai1*and Dr. A. G. Naik2 1SMS; Horticulture, KVK, Waghai, 2Professor and Head, Dept. of Horticulture, N. M. College of Agriculture, *E-mail: [email protected] com ABSTRACT The present investigation was carried out to evaluate physico-chemical properties of some mango varieties for pulp processing. The varieties taken for evaluation were ‘Kesar’, ‘Alphanso’ and ‘Dashehari’ as treatments with seven replications.

The physico-chemical quality for fruits of mango varieties were compared and it was found that fruit weight (g), pulp (%), peel (%), stone (%) and crude fibre (%). The variety ‘Kesar’ was superior over the other while, in case of their chemical attributes in fresh pulp, it was found that the ‘Alphanso’ was superior in total sugar (%), pH, acidity (%) and T. S. S. (oBrix). In storage the compositional changes in mango pulp made from different mango varieties were followed through periodical evaluation.

It was found that moisture level in pulp was increased up to 3 months and than decrease slightly during entire period of storage. T. S. S. was remained more or less stable during entire period of storage. Total sugar (%), reducing sugar (%) and acidity (%) was increasing during entire storage period while pH was decreasing. KEY WORDS: Early cultivars, Pulp Processing, Kesar, Alphanso, Dashehari. INTRODUCTION Mango (Mangifera indica L. ) is grown almost in 63 countries around the world and fruit occupies a unique place among the fruit crops grown in India.

Mango ranks among the best fruits of the world by virtue of its excellent flavour, delicious taste, delicate fragrance, attractive colour and nutritive value, so it is known as “king of fruits”. The total area under mango crop in India is estimated to be 22. 05 million ha. with a production of 13. 80 million metric tones per annum, being about 38 per cent of the total fruit production of India (Anon. , 2008). At present in Gujarat about 1. 09 lac ha under mango cultivation which produces 9. 30 lac. metric tones of mango. (Anon. , 2008). The important early cultivars are Alphanso,

Kesar, Rajapuri, Dashehari are popular and accepted by orchardist in South Gujarat and plantations are in progress. Ripe mangoes are successfully processed in to the mango slice in sugar syrup, mango juice, nectar, pulp, squash, RTS beverages, mango syrup, jam, mango bar, jelly, powder, strained baby foods cereal flakes, concentrate structured mango product. Looking to the mango varieties generally early Kesar and Alphanso are utilized for pulp processing in Gujarat. However, Alphanso is affected by spongy tissue; hence there is limitation for processing.

So it is decided to evaluate the varieties for pulp processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS The green mature mango fruits of uniform size and shape having specific gravity between 1. 0 to 1. 04 were collected at the optimum maturity stages. The fruits were free from mechanical damage, bruises, sun burns and fungal/ insect attack. They were harvested at the time when a few naturally ripe fruits started dropping, locally called as Sakh or Tapaka. The fruits were washed with tap water in the laboratory and then allowed to natural ripe by using paddy straw under the shed.

Processing: Mango pulp canning is done by the methodology given by the Naujundaswamy (1997) at canning factory APMC Gandevi in A10 size can and kept under room temperature. The final product from each treatment in the both experiment are divided in to the three lots for periodical evaluation in storage at 0 hr, 3 month and 6 month for understanding the qualitative compositional statues of fresh product as well as processed pulp during storage. Methodology of mango pulp processing: Ripe Mango v Washing v Peeling and Slicing v Pulp Extraction v Pulp v Brix (160-180) and Acidity (pH 3. -4. 0) adjustment v Heating to 850C v Filling hot into A10 size tins v Sealing v Processing (45 min. at 100 0C) v Cooling v Labeling v Packaging v Storage Storage and evaluation: The final product from each variety are divided in to the three lots for periodical evaluation in storage at 0 hr, 3 month and 6 month for understanding the qualitative compositional statues of fresh product as well as processed pulp during storage. The physico-chemical characters For fresh fruit and fresh pulp fruit weight (gm), Pulp: Peel: Stone ratio, Moisture (%), Crude Fiber (%), pH of Pulp, T. S. S. oBrix), Acidity (%), Reducing Sugar (%) and Total Sugar (%) while for Processed pulp Moisture (%), pH of Pulp, T. S. S. (oBrix), Acidity (%), Reducing Sugar (%) and Total Sugar (%) were recorded for evaluate the quality parameters of raw material and product made and their storage behavior on time scale in respect of quality of product. The total soluble solids (TSS) was determined with a hand refractometer. The pH was measured by a pH meter. Acidity, reducing sugar, total sugar and non-reducing sugar were estimated as per the procedures described by Ranganna (1986). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Qualitative characters of fresh fruit and pulp

The physical parameters of fruits like, fruit weight, pulp (%), peel (%), stone (%) and crude fiber (%) were taken variety wise. An appraisal of data in Table – 1 revealed that the fruit weight was found significantly higher in the Alphanso (242. 42 g) which was at par with Kesar (237. 57 g). The lowest fruit weight was found in the Dashehari (152. 0 g). The pulp (%) was found maximum in the Kesar (68%) and the minimum in the Dashehari (60%). Peel (%) and stone (%) was found maximum in the Dashehari (20 and 23 % respectively) and minimum peel (%) in the Alphanso (17%) and minimum stone (%) in the Kesar (16%).

In case of crude fiber significantly lower was found in Kesar (0. 9) that was at par with Alphanso (1. 0). The moisture (%) was found significantly higher in the Dashehari (72. 42%), which was followed by Alphanso (66. 85 %). The lowest moisture (%) was found in the Kesar (66. 00 %). pH was significantly higher in the Dashehari (4. 50) while, the lowest pH was found in the Alphanso (4. 25). Acidity (%) was found significantly higher in the Alphanso (0. 60%) and the lowest acidity (%) was found in the Dashehari (0. 198%). T. S. S. and reducing sugar (%) was found significantly higher in the Dashehari (20. 3 oBrix and 4. 99%, respectively) while, the lowest in the Kesar (18. 55 oBrix and 4. 51%, respectively). In case of the total sugar (%), it was found significantly higher in the Alphanso (14. 29%), and lowest in the Kesar (12. 89%). The above all the physical parameters are directly related with cultivars own genetically inherent that mean phenotype of parented characters were migrated in offspring. Similar findings were found by, Jain et al. (1996) in cv. Kesar and Amrapali; Chakraborthy et al. (1991) in cv. ‘Dashehari’; Iyer et al. (1991) in cv. Alphanso; Saini et al. (1981) in cv. Totapuri and Dashehari.

Comparative changes of processed pulp during storage Moisture (%): The perusal of data in Table – 2 indicated that in early cultivars, at 0 hrs, moisture (%) was found significantly higher in Dashehari (65. 00), which was followed by Kesar (62. 28%). The lowest moisture was found in the Alphanso (61. 85 %). At 3 months moisture % was found significantly higher in Dashehari (64. 14%). That was followed by Kesar (62. 42%). The lowest moisture % was found in the Alphanso (62. 21%). At 6 months moisture % is found significantly higher in the Dashehari (63. 14%), which was followed by Kesar (61. 2%). The lowest moisture % was found in the Alphanso (61. 35%). The changes in moisture content were lowest in Kesar at fresh state of pulp than at 0 hrs, 3 month and 6 month lowest moisture recorded in Alphanso, than rest of the varieties. However, the overall moisture trend under storage recorded increased up to 3 month, there after decreased. These may be due to the processing pulp most of the varieties of pulp lost moisture and at 0 hrs and there after moisture level remained changes. The pulp of varieties at 0 hrs moisture content lowest remained were throughout the period.

However, over all moisture content increased may be due to the bio-chemical changes take place among other constituent of the pulp and so environmental effect of room temperature. After 3 months it decreased due to the stability declined towards the prolongation of storage period on and average however, variety having low moisture at fresh 0 hrs, 3 month and 6 month significantly lowest having varietals performance during the storage period. Similar responses were recorded in moisture (%) by Kalra and Chadha (1989) in cv. Lucknow Safeda and Kalra and Tandon (1985) in cv.

Mallika. pH: The data pertaining to pH are presented in Table – 3. Data clearly revealed that at 0 hrs pH was found significantly higher in the Alphanso (3. 83), which was at par with Dashehari (3. 80). The lowest pH was found in the Kesar (3. 75). At 3 months the pH was found significantly higher in Dashehari (3. 75); that were at par with Dashehari (3. 71). The lowest pH was found in Kesar (3. 60). At 6 months pH was found significantly higher in the Dashehari (3. 55); that were at par with Alphanso (3. 59). The lowest pH was found in the Kesar (3. 50). H was decreasing slightly during all storage period. The decreasing trend of pH may be due to bio-chemical changes taken place amongst the different constituent in pulp hence goes period of pulp. Similar trend was observed by Roy et al. (1997) in the pH of pulp, RTS beverages, squash and nectar prepared from Dashehari cultivar of Mango. Acidity (%): The data recorded on acidity of processed pulp are presented in Table – 4. The acidity (%) was increasing slightly up to 6 months. At 0 hrs acidity (%) was found significantly higher in the Alphanso (0. 7%) that was followed by Dashehari (0. 43%). The lowest acidity % was found in the Kesar (0. 42). At 3 months acidity % was found significantly higher in Alphanso (0. 60%) that was followed by Dashehari (0. 44%). The lowest acidity (%) was found in the Kesar (0. 42%). At 6 months acidity % was found significantly higher in the Alphanso (0. 61%), which was followed by Kesar (0. 44%). The lowest acidity (%) was found in the Dashehari (0. 43%). The increasing trend of acidity (%) is due to pH is decreasing during storage and also reaction of different constituents in pulp.

Similar trend in acidity (%) during storage were also recorded by Gomez and Khurdiya (2005) in Aonla pulp stored at room temperature; Alex et al. (2004) in Litchi juice and Roy et al. (1997) in mango pulp and beverage of cv. Dashehari. T. S. S. (oBrix): The data recorded on T. S. S. are presented in Table – 4. 5 revealed that in early cultivars, at 0 hrs the T. S. S. was found significantly higher in the Alphanso (20. 31 oBrix), that was followed by Dashehari (20. 11 oBrix). The lowest T. S. S. was found in the Kesar (19. 62 oBrix). At 3 months the T. S. S. as significantly higher in the Dashehari (20. 18 oBrix), that was at par with the Alphanso (20. 10 oBrix). The lowest T. S. S. was found in the Kesar (19. 52 oBrix). At 6 months the T. S. S. was found maximum in the Dashehari (20. 11 oBrix). The minimum was found in the Kesar (19. 52 oBrix). T. S. S. was found more or less stable and no remarkable change was observed in T. S. S. The T. S. S. remains, constant or slight change may be due to biochemical changes among the constituent in the pulp more or less remained constant. Similarly findings were observed by Roy et al. 1997) in cv. Dashehari and Chakraborthy et al. (1991) in cv. Dashehari; Kapur et al. (1985) in juice and pulp of cv. Dashehari; Maini et al. (1984) in Mango and Tomato pulp stored in HMHD film pouches. Reducing Sugar (%): An appraisal of data in Table – 6 showed that at 0 hrs the reducing sugar (%) was found significantly higher in the Dashehari (5. 09%), which was followed by Alphanso (4. 81%). The lowest reducing sugar % was found in the Kesar (4. 57%). At 3 months reducing sugar % was found significantly higher in the Dashehari (5. 24%), which was followed by Alphanso (4. 95%).

The lowest reducing sugar % was found in the Kesar (4. 68%). At 6 months the reducing sugar % was significantly higher in the Dashehari (5. 24%) that was followed by Alphanso (5. 11%). The lowest reducing sugar was found in the Kesar (4. 68%). Reducing Sugar (%) was found in increasing trend during storage at room temperature. It was may be due to the biochemical changes occurred amongst the sugar fraction in pulp and with other constituent in pulp during throughout the storage period. The same trend of reducing sugar are also observed by Alex et al. (2004) in litchi juice; Roy et al. 1997); Kapur et al. (1985) in Dashehari mango pulp and juice and Maini et al. (1984) in mango and tomato pulp. Total Sugar (%): The data on total sugar are furnished in Table – 7 indicated that at 0 hrs the total sugar was found significantly higher in the Alphanso (13. 97%); that was followed by Dashehari (12. 75%). The lowest total sugar was found in the Kesar (12. 52%). At 3 months the total sugar was found significantly higher in the Alphanso (14. 36%); that was followed by Dashehari (13. 38%). The lowest total sugar was found in the Kesar (12. 98%).

At 6 months the total sugar % was found significantly higher in the Alphanso (14. 31%); that was followed by Dashehari (13. 55%). The lowest total sugar % was found in the Kesar (13. 14%). The total sugar (%) was found in increasing trend during storage period up to 6 months. This trend of total sugar (%) may be due to the biochemical changes occurred amongst the sugar fraction in pulp and with other constituent in pulp during throughout the storage period. The similar results are also obtained by Kapur et al. (1985) in cv. Dashehari mango pulp and juice and Maini et al. (1984) in mango and tomato pulp.

Conclusion: From the entire investigation it was concluded that mango pulp processing was done by addition of citric acid with heating at 85 oC and processing after sealing at 100 oC for 45 minutes gave the superior results after processing and was not so far different in physico-chemical character of mango pulp in compare to fresh mango pulp of each cultivars. The cultivars ‘Kesar’ and ‘Alphanso’ was best. Table – 1: Qualitative characters of fresh pulp |Varieties |Fruit wt. (g) |Pulp (%) |Peel (%) |Stone (%) | |Kesar |66. 0 |62. 28 |62. 42 |61. 42 | |Alphanso |66. 65 |61. 85 |62. 21 |61. 35 | |Dashehari |72. 42 |65. 00 |64. 14 |63. 14 | |G. Mean |68. 42 |63. 04 |62. 92 |61. 97 | |S. Em. + |0. 404 |0. 381 |0. 459 |0. 355 | |C. D. at 5% |1. 0 |1. 13 |1. 36 |1. 05 | |C. V. % |1. 56 |1. 60 |1. 93 |1. 52 | Table – 3: Comparative changes in the pH during storage |Varieties |Fresh Pulp |0 hours |3 months |6 months | |Kesar |4. 43 |3. 75 |3. 60 |3. 50 | |Alphanso |4. 25 |3. 83 |3. 75 |3. 9 | |Dashehari |4. 50 |3. 80 |3. 71 |3. 55 | |G. Mean |4. 396 |3. 796 |3. 68 |3. 55 | |S. Em. + |0. 016 |0. 022 |0. 018 |0. 010 | |C. D. at 5% |0. 04 |0. 07 |0. 05 |0. 03 | |C. V. % |0. 98 |1. 54 |1. 36 |0. 76 |

Table – 4: Comparative changes in the acidity (%) during storage | Varieties |Fresh Pulp |0 hours |3 months |6 months | |Kesar |0. 28 |0. 42 |0. 42 |0. 44 | |Alphanso |0. 60 |0. 57 |0. 60 |0. 61 | |Dashehari |0. 19 |0. 42 |0. 44 |0. 44 | |G. Mean |0. 36 |0. 47 |0. 9 |0. 50 | |S. Em. + |0. 008 |0. 01 |0. 01 |0. 005 | |C. D. at 5% |0. 02 |0. 03 |0. 03 |0. 01 | |C. V. % |6. 52 |5. 81 |5. 56 |2. 62 | Table – 5: Comparative changes in the T. S. S. (OBrix) during Storage |Varieties |Fresh Pulp |0 hours |3 months |6 months | |Kesar |18. 5 |19. 62 |19. 52 |19. 52 | |Alphanso |20. 10 |20. 31 |30. 10 |19. 95 | |Dashehari |20. 13 |20. 11 |20. 18 |20. 11 | |G. Mean |19. 59 |20. 02 |19. 93 |19. 86 | |S. Em. + |0. 160 |0. 029 |0. 150 |0. 190 | |C. D. at 5% |0. 7 |0. 08 |0. 46 |NS | |C. V. % |2. 16 |0. 39 |2. 10 |2. 54 | Table – 6: Comparative changes in the reducing sugar (%) during storage |Varieties |Fresh Pulp |0 hours |3 months |6 months | |Kesar |4. 51 |4. 57 |4. 68 |4. 68 | |Alphanso |4. 75 |4. 81 |4. 95 |5. 1 | |Dashehari |4. 99 |5. 09 |5. 24 |5. 24 | |G. Mean |4. 75 |4. 82 |4. 96 |5. 13 | |S. Em. + |0. 070 |0. 020 |0. 051 |0. 030 | |C. D. at 5% |0. 21 |0. 06 |0. 17 |0. 10 | |C. V. % |4. 08 |1. 23 |3. 07 |1. 81 |

Table – 7: Comparative changes in the total sugar (%) during storage |Varieties |Fresh Pulp |0 hours |3 months |6 months | |Kesar |12. 87 |12. 52 |12. 98 |13. 14 | |Alphanso |14. 29 |13. 97 |14. 36 |14. 31 | |Dashehari |13. 38 |12. 75 |13. 38 |13. 55 | |G. Mean |13. 51 |13. 08 |13. 57 |13. 7 | |S. Em. + |0. 070 |0. 025 |0. 060 |0. 071 | |C. D. at 5% |0. 22 |0. 07 |0. 18 |0. 22 | |C. V. % |1. 47 |0. 52 |1. 19 |1. 44 | Reference: Alex L. ; Suresh, C. P; Kabir, J. and Dhua, R. S. (2004). Litchi juice processing and preservation. Indian Food Packer, 58 (4) 48-53. Anonymous (2008). Indian Horticulture Database, National Horticulture Mission, Gurgaon.

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