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“ Evaluation of Some Late Varieties of Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) for Pulp Processing”

“ Evaluation of Some Late Varieties of Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) for Pulp Processing”

“EVALUATION OF SOME LATE VARIETIES OF MANGO (Mangifera indica L. ) FOR PULP PROCESSING” by C. S. Desai1, Dr. A. G. Naik2 and J. M. Patel3* 1Ph. D. Scholar, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, 2Professor and Head, Dept. of Horticulture, N. M. College of Agriculture, 3Asst. Prof. (Post Harvest Technology) ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari *E-mail: jilen. m. [email protected] com ABSTRACT The present investigation was carried out to evaluate physico-chemical properties of some late mango varieties for pulp processing.

The varieties taken for evaluation were ‘Amrapali’, ‘Totapuri’, ‘Neelum’, ‘Sonpari’ and ‘Sindhu’ as treatments with four replications. The physico-chemical quality for fruits of mango varieties were compared and it was found that fruit weight (g), pulp (%), peel (%), stone (%) and crude fibre (%). The ‘Sonpari’ was superior in all the physical parameters, in case of their chemical attributes viz. , total sugar (%), pH, acidity (%) and T. S. S. (oBrix) in fresh pulp it was found that ‘Sonpari’ and ‘Amrapali’ were superior in comparison with other late cultivars immediately after processing also.

In storage the compositional changes in mango pulp made from different mango varieties were followed through periodical evaluation. It was found that moisture level in pulp was increased up to 3 months and then decrease slightly during entire period of storage. T. S. S. was remained more or less stable during entire period of storage. Total sugar (%), reducing sugar (%) and acidity (%) was increasing during entire storage period while pH was decreasing. KEY WORDS: Late cultivars, Pulp Processing, Amrapali, Totapuri, Neelum, Sonpari, Sindhu INTRODUCTION Mango (Mangifera indica L. is grown almost in 63 countries around the world and fruit occupies a unique place among the fruit crops grown in India. Mango ranks among the best fruits of the world by virtue of its excellent flavour, delicious taste, delicate fragrance, attractive colour and nutritive value, so it is known as “king of fruits”. The total area under mango crop in India is estimated to be 22. 05 million ha. with a production of 13. 80 million metric tons per annum, being about 38 per cent of the total fruit production of India (Anon. , 2008). At present in Gujarat about 1. 9 lakh ha under mango cultivation which produces 9. 30 lakh metric tons of mango. (Anon. , 2008). The important late cultivars are late group Neelum, Dadamio, Pachhatio, Malgoa, Amrapali, Totapuri, Langda, Sardar, Karanjio, Vashi Badami. However, new late hybrids cultivars Ratna, Sindhu, Neelphanso, Neeleshan, Neeleshwari, Sonpari are popular. Ripe mangoes are successfully processed in to the mango slice in sugar syrup, mango juice, nectar, pulp, squash, RTS beverages, mango syrup, jam, mango bar, jelly, powder, strained baby foods cereal flakes, concentrate structured mango product.

Some of the late varieties which are maturing in the month of July having better prospects for pulp processing, so processing industries are getting raw materials from May to July and which generate employment as well as encourage orchardist for cultivation. So it is decided to evaluate the varieties for pulp processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS The green mature mango fruits of uniform size and shape having specific gravity between 1. 0 to 1. 04 were collected at the optimum maturity stages.

The fruits were free from mechanical damage, bruises, sun burns and fungal/ insect attack. They were harvested at the time when a few naturally ripe fruits started dropping, locally called as Sakh or Tapaka. The fruits were washed with tap water in the laboratory and then allowed to natural ripe by using paddy straw under the shed. Processing: Mango pulp canning is done by the methodology given by the Naujundaswamy (1997) at canning factory APMC, Gandevi in A10 size can and kept under room temperature.

The final product from each treatment in the both experiment are divided in to the three lots for periodical evaluation in storage at 0 hr, 3 month and 6 month for understanding the qualitative compositional statues of fresh product as well as processed pulp during storage. Methodology of mango pulp processing: Ripe Mango v Washing v Peeling and Slicing v Pulp Extraction v Pulp v Brix (160-180) and Acidity (pH 3. 8-4. 0) adjustment v Heating to 850C v Filling hot into A10 size tins v Sealing v Processing (45 min. at 100 0C) v Cooling v Labeling v Packaging Storage Storage and evaluation: The final product from each variety are divided in to the three lots for periodical evaluation in storage at 0 hr, 3 month and 6 month for understanding the qualitative compositional statues of fresh product as well as processed pulp during storage. The physico-chemical characters For fresh fruit and fresh pulp fruit weight (gm), Pulp: Peel: Stone ratio, Moisture (%), Crude Fiber (%), pH of Pulp, T. S. S. (oBrix), Acidity (%), Reducing Sugar (%) and Total Sugar (%) while for Processed pulp Moisture (%), pH of Pulp, T. S. S. oBrix), Acidity (%), Reducing Sugar (%) and Total Sugar (%) were recorded for evaluate the quality parameters of raw material and product made and their storage behavior on time scale in respect of quality of product. The total soluble solids (TSS) was determined with a hand refractometer. The pH was measured by a pH meter. Acidity, reducing sugar, total sugar and non-reducing sugar were estimated as per the procedures described by Ranganna (1986). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Qualitative characters of fresh fruit and pulp The data on qualitative characters of fresh mango pulp of late cultivars are presented in Table – 1.

The perusal of data in Table – 1 indicated that in late cultivars, fruit weight was found significantly higher in the Sonpari (552. 25 g), which was followed by Amrapali (348. 50 g). The lowest fruit weight was found in the Sindhu (224. 25 g). The maximum pulp (%) was found in the Sonpari (70%) and the minimum in the Neelum (52%). Peel (%) was found maximum in the Neelum (27%) and minimum in the Sonpari (15%). Stone (%) was found maximum in the Neelum (21%) and minimum in the Sonpari, Amrapali and Sindhu (15%). The Crude Fiber (g) was found significantly lower in Sonpari (0. 7) that was at par with Amrapali (0. ). Moisture (%) was significantly higher in the Neelum (74. 55%), which was at par with Amrapali and Sindhu (72. 00 % and 72. 00%). The lowest moisture (%) was so and in the Totapuri (63. 50%). pH was found significantly higher in the Sonpari (4. 75), which was at par with Sindhu (4. 70). The lowest pH was found in the Totapuri (3. 92). Acidity % was found significantly higher in the Sindhu (0. 69%), which was followed by Sonpari (0. 34%). The lowest acidity was found in the Amrapali (0. 23%). T. S. S. was found significantly higher in the Amrapali (19. 55 oBrix), which was followed by Sindhu (18. 5 oBrix). The lowest T. S. S. was found in the Totapuri (17. 05 oBrix). The reducing sugar (%) was found significantly higher in the Neelum (5. 31%), which was followed by Amrapali (5. 12%). The lowest reducing sugar (%) was found in the Sindhu (4. 13%). The total sugar (%) was found significantly higher in the Sindhu (14. 99%), which was followed by Totapuri (14. 70%). The lowest total sugar was found in the Neelum (13. 35%). These results may be due to more or less genetically inherent and variety, which is superior in respect of Bio-chemical character showed superior pulp.

Hence, it contained higher value and ranks top most in respective constituents. Similar observations were also obtained by Anonymous (2005) in cv. Sonpari, Amrapali and Sindhu; Chakraborthy and Debnath (2004) in cv. Dasheri and Amrapali; Gunjal and Waghmare (1987) in cv. Neelum; Saini (1981) in cv. Dasheri and Totapuri. Comparative changes of processed pulp during storage Moisture (%): The data on moisture was presented in Table – 2 revealed that in late cultivars, at 0 hrs, 3 months and 6 months moisture (%) was found significantly higher in the Neelum (71. 0, 71. 75 and 71. 25%, respectively) and that was followed by Amrapali (68. 50, 69. 25 and 68. 00 %, respectively). The lowest moisture (%) was found in the Sonpari (63. 25, 64. 12 and 62. 37%, respectively). However, the overall moisture trend under storage recorded increased up to 3 month, there after decreased. These may be due to the processing pulp most of the varieties of pulp lost moisture and at 0 hrs and there after moisture level remained changes. The pulp of varieties at 0 hrs moisture content lowest remained were throughout the period.

However, over all moisture content increased may be due to the bio-chemical changes take place among other constituent of the pulp and so environmental effect of room temperature. After 3 months it decreased due to the stability declined towards the prolongation of storage period on and average however, variety having low moisture at fresh 0 hrs, 3 month and 6 month significantly lowest having varietals performance during the storage period. Similar observations were also obtained by Chakraborthy and Debnath (2004) in cv. Dasheri and Amrapali; Chakraborthy et al. (1991) in cv. Dasheri; Gunjal and Waghmare (1987) in cv.

Neelum and Saini (1981) in cv. Dasheri and Totapuri. pH: The data regarding pH of late group cultivars during storage are presented in Table – 3 showed that in late cultivars, at 0 hrs pH was found significantly higher in the Sonpari (3. 75), that was at par with Totapuri (3. 70) and Neelum (3. 70). At 3 months the pH was maximum in the Sindhu (3. 65), the minimum pH was found in the Totapuri (3. 49). At 6 months pH was found significantly higher in the Sonpari (3. 44) that was followed by Neelum (3. 39). At 0 hrs and 6 months of storage the lowest pH was found in the Sindhu (3. 60 and 3. 32, respectively). H was decreasing slightly during all storage period. The decreasing trend of pH may be due to bio-chemical changes taken place amongst the different constituent in pulp hence goes period of pulp. Similar trend was observed by Roy et al. (1997) in the pH of pulp, RTS beverages, squash and nectar prepared from Dashehari cultivar of Mango. Acidity (%):The perusal of data in Table – 4 indicated that in late cultivars, at 0 hrs, 3 months and 6 months of storage acidity was found significantly higher in the Sindhu (0. 63, 0. 65 and 0. 67%, respectively), that was followed by Totapuri (0. 52, 0. 53 and 0. 4 %, respectively). At 0 hrs and 3 months the lowest acidity was found in the Neelum (0. 42 and 0. 43 %, respectively), while at 6 month lowest acidity (%) was found in the Amrapali (0. 48%). The increasing trend of acidity (%) is due to pH is decreasing during storage and also reaction of different constituents in pulp. Similar trend in acidity (%) during storage were also recorded by Roy et al. (1997) in mango pulp and beverage of cv. Dasheri; Naujundaswamy (1997) in canned Totapuri mango pulp stored at 4 oC. REFERANCES Anonymous (2005). Narmada Kisan Parivar Patra, Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizer Company Ltd. : 11-15. Anonymous (2008). Indian Horticulture Database, National Horticulture Mission, Gurgaon. Pp. 106-115. Chakraborthy, I and Debnath, S. (2004). Screening of mango cultivars for processing. Ind. Fd. Packer, 68 (5) : 71-75. Chakraborthy, S. ; Bisht, H. C. ; Agrawal, M. D. ; Varma, L. N. and Shukla, I. C. (1991). Studies on varietal screening of mangoes of Uttar Pradesh for their suitability for juice and pulp. Ind. Fd. Packer, 55 (5) : 49-57. Gunjal, B. B. and Waghmare, N. J. (1987). Flow characteristics of pulp, juice and Neetar of ‘Baneshan’ & Neelum’ mangoes, J. Food. Sci. Technol. , 24 (1) : 20-23.

Naujundaswamy, A. M. (1997). The mango : pp 509-523. Ranganna, S. (1986). Hand book of analysis and quality control for fruit & vegetable products, Tata Mcgraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. , New Delhi 522, 544 pp. Roy, A. K. Joshi, S. and Nath N. (1997). Effect of Homogerlization on sensory quality & physiological characteristics of pulp and beverages form ripe ‘Dashehari’ mangoes. J. Food Sci. Technol. , 34 (3) : 212-216. Saini, A. K.. (1981). Studies on preparation of beverage from sulphited mango pulp. J. Food. Sci. Technol. , 18 (5) : 218-221. Table – 1: Qualitative characters of fresh pulp Varieties |Fruit wt. (g) |Pulp (%) |Peel (%) |Stone (%) | |Sonpari |66. 50 |63. 25 |64. 12 |62. 37 | |Neelum |74. 75 |71. 50 |71. 75 |71. 25 | |Amrapali |72. 00 |68. 50 |69. 25 |68. 00 | |Totapuri |63. 50 |67. 50 |67. 87 |67. 62 | |Sindhu |72. 0 |68. 50 |68. 37 |66. 87 | |G. Mean |69. 75 |67. 85 |68. 27 |67. 22 | |S. Em. + |1. 17 |0. 71 |0. 37 |0. 44 | |C. D. at 5% |3. 53 |2. 15 |1. 13 |1. 33 | |C. V. % |3. 37 |2. 11 |1. 11 |1. 32 | Table – 3: Comparative changes in the pH during storage Varieties |Fresh Pulp |0 hours |3 months |6 months | |Sonpari |4. 75 |3. 75 |3. 63 |3. 44 | |Neelum |4. 41 |3. 70 |3. 50 |3. 39 | |Amrapali |4. 02 |3. 62 |3. 49 |3. 34 | |Totapuri |3. 92 |3. 70 |3. 52 |3. 35 | |Sindhu |4. 0 |3. 60 |3. 65 |3. 32 | |G. Mean |4. 36 |3. 67 |3. 56 |3. 37 | |S. Em. + |0. 05 |0. 03 |0. 05 |0. 013 | |C. D. at 5% |0. 15 |0. 08 |NS |0. 040 | |C. V. % |2. 41 |1. 54 |3. 18 |0. 81 | Table – 4: Comparative changes in the acidity (%) during storage Varieties |Fresh Pulp |0 hours |3 months |6 months | |Sonpari |0. 34 |0. 50 |0. 51 |0. 52 | |Neelum |0. 27 |0. 41 |0. 43 |0. 49 | |Amrapali |0. 23 |0. 46 |0. 47 |0. 48 | |Totapuri |0. 23 |0. 51 |0. 53 |0. 54 | |Sindhu |0. 9 |0. 63 |0. 65 |0. 67 | |G. Mean |0. 35 |0. 50 |0. 52 |0. 54 | |S. Em. + |0. 02 |0. 02 |0. 016 |0. 005 | |C. D. at 5% |0. 06 |0. 06 |0. 048 |0. 016 | |C. V. % |12. 23 |7. 42 |6. 17 |2. 01 | Table – 5: Comparative changes in the T.

S. S. (OBrix) during Storage |Varieties |Fresh Pulp |0 hours |3 months |6 months | |Sonpari |18. 02 |18. 32 |18. 02 |17. 67 | |Neelum |17. 30 |18. 02 |17. 70 |17. 62 | |Amrapali |19. 55 |20. 25 |19. 80 |19. 92 | |Totapuri |17. 05 |17. 02 |17. 05 |17. 5 | |Sindhu |18. 05 |18. 50 |18. 50 |18. 45 | |G. Mean |17. 99 |18. 38 |18. 21 |18. 14 | |S. Em. + |0. 11 |0. 02 |0. 12 |0. 17 | |C. D. at 5% |0. 34 |0. 06 |0. 37 |0. 51 | |C. V. % |1. 28 |0. 24 |1. 36 |1. 90 |

Table – 6: Comparative changes in the reducing sugar (%) during storage |Varieties |Fresh Pulp |0 hours |3 months |6 months | |Sonpari |5. 11 |5. 25 |5. 32 |5. 38 | |Neelum |5. 31 |5. 33 |5. 47 |5. 52 | |Amrapali |5. 12 |5. 28 |5. 46 |5. 50 | |Totapuri |4. 86 |5. 09 |5. 8 |5. 39 | |Sindhu |4. 13 |4. 31 |4. 40 |4. 51 | |G. Mean |4. 90 |5. 05 |5. 19 |5. 26 | |S. Em. + |0. 04 |0. 03 |0. 03 |0. 05 | |C. D. at 5% |0. 12 |0. 08 |0. 09 |0. 14 | |C. V. % |1. 66 |1. 10 |1. 23 |1. 9 | Table – 7: Comparative changes in the total sugar (%) during storage |Varieties |Fresh Pulp |0 hours |3 months |6 months | |Sonpari |14. 17 |14. 04 |14. 42 |14. 67 | |Neelum |13. 35 |13. 23 |13. 35 |13. 63 | |Amrapali |14. 42 |14. 32 |14. 42 |14. 80 | |Totapuri |14. 70 |14. 58 |14. 0 |15. 12 | |Sindhu |14. 98 |14. 79 |14. 98 |15. 46 | |G. Mean |14. 32 |14. 196 |14. 37 |14. 77 | |S. Em. + |0. 07 |0. 03 |0. 07 |0. 06 | |C. D. at 5% |0. 20 |0. 11 |0. 23 |0. 18 | |C. V. % |1. 03 |0. 53 |1. 09 |0. 82 |