Crjs 105 Unit 1 Theories Crime Causation
Criminology is the study of crime, criminals, criminal behavior, as well as corrections it inspects the response of crime from society and the prevention of crimes. What does Criminology include? Many do ask. Well it includes the examination of criminal evidence, psychological and hereditary causes of crime, numerous approaches of investigation of crime and conviction of offenders also the effectiveness of changing types of sentencing, correction and rehabilitation.
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A criminologist is really a social scientist their main focus is on criminology and they also specialize in researches, studies as well as analyzing social behaviors. Criminologists observe the normality of behaviors most common in society and deviations of these social normality’s. As well as the importance of recognizing that all societies have their own behavioral normality’s and deviations of those normality’s. Now that I have explained what criminology is and what criminologist studies are I will move on to criminalistics. What is a Criminalist? 2011) Criminalistics is the forensic science that examines and interprets evidence while using natural science. Forensic science relates to all sciences applied to lawful issues. Criminalists examine and identify physical evidence found in order to rebuild the scene of the crime. Physical evidence is most often things such as weapons, parts of cloths, bloodstains, drugs, or sometimes the vapor in the air. They link the physical evidence between the suspect and the victim of the crime.
Clothing and hair fibers transferred from a suspect to victim and vise-versa and can offer a link as well as fingerprints, bullets, and shoe or foot dints in the ground or in areas are that also very important links. Physical evidence is obtained from the crime scene and includes the body of the victim also the adjacent area of the crime. Criminalists also receive their evidence at the laboratory, which was gained from the crime scene by crime scene investigators. To properly obtain evidence is a must to stop contamination and destruction of the evidence.
When the evidence is received at the crime lab, Criminalists begin their testing. Criminalists are very often called to court to demonstrate the expertise and methods of their findings. The important skills that an criminalists need in order to perform their duties adequately and systematically are the knowing how to find and identify information,and Finding ways to structure or classify many parts of information, reading comprehension, problem identification, science, critical thinking, chemistry, public safety and security, English language, inductive reasoning, oral expression and finally information gathering. WHAT DOES A CRIMINALIST, FORENSIC SCIENCE TECHNICIAN DO? 2002) Forensic psychologist study psychology and the law, Psychologist maybe found working in the following places: prisons, jails, rehabilitation centers, police departments, law firms, schools, government agencies, or in private practice. These are just a few locations that psychologist may be found in this line of work. They can also work immediately with attorneys, defendants, offenders, victims, pupils, families, or with patients within the state’s corrections or rehabilitation centers.
Other psychologist that may be involved in forensic psychology that have the same study, could work in government agencies, colleges, universities and/ or other places that are interested in researching as well as inspecting the interaction of human behavior, criminology, and the legal system. (Marisa Mauro, Psy. D. June 2010) Now that we know the location where forensic psychologist may work and their place of study, we shall move on to discuss the degree they may have and also the descriptions of the jobs they hold.
Psychologists that work in forensic psychology most frequently come from a large variety of work experiences, educations also trainings. Every psychologist has a doctorate degree in the field of psychology. A few psychologists even have knowledge or training in the law or hold a Juris Doctor-degree that is earned by attorneys. The majority whom are working in private practices or prisons as well have license to practice that is granted from their state board of psychology, pre and post-doctoral training years as well as passing a series of board examinations.
Unlicensed psychologists are allowed to practice with supervision for a period of time, because some governmental agencies are considered exempt settings. Psychologists that are working among forensics can provide a multitude of services. Commonly psychologist that are working in corrections may care for inmates that have mental health needs that also contains, screening, psychological assessment, individual therapy, group therapy, anger management, crisis management, court-ordered evaluations, or daily inpatient rounds.
For some recommendations for a variety of mental health topics, one can consult with prison staff, inmate attorneys, advocates, and court systems or gather results from psychological assessments. Assessments that psychologist make when working with attorneys are psychological, personality, mitigating factors, sex offenders, competency as well as parental custody or visitation recommendations, that is just a list of a few. The psychologists working in or with police departments usually give services to employees of the department for example counseling or management of crisis. (Marisa Mauro, Psy.
D. June 2010) Now that I had discussed the differences between criminologist, criminalists, and forensic psychologists, and their respective places of study- I will move on to explain the difference between white color crime and blue color crime. A highly visible crime committed by the average working class or poor American is the blue collar crime. Crimes from violent crime to thievery and even drug-related crimes are blue collar crimes. Most of these offenses are committed by people who believe that they have nothing to lose, and everything to gain by the success or failure of the offense.
These people have a lack of hope, peer and environmental pressures, or the feeling of no other option. Americans who work for a living, to earn an income in order to support a family the hard way can work day and/or night shifts. People who are unemployed are the ones at a higher risk of committing what is classified as a blue collar crime, according to experts. These types of crimes include theft, drug charges, drinking under the influence (DUI), and violent crimes. Many high-powered executives are charged with DUIs, crimes of violence and drug crimes but aren’t charged at the same high rate as the blue collar worker. (Blue Collar vs.
White Collar Crimes Saturday, By admin April 10th, 2010) Higher class people such as those who have inherited money or earn a lot of money at an upper level job are considered your white collar league. The crimes committed by this group of people are called your white collar crimes. These crimes are usually crimes of technical or money related in nature such as computer-based crimes or embezzlement. With these crimes steadily increasing more people are discovering the negative aspects of doing business mostly online. The punishments for the white collar crime are drastically different from the punishment of the blue collar crime.
The white collar crime would serve probation or community service in conjunction with a high monetary fine as compared to the blue collar worker whom is expected to be incarcerated without any other options. (Blue Collar vs. White Collar Crimes Saturday, By admin April 10th, 2010) The FBI measures crime in the uniform crime report of offenses to be of those in the blue collar worker group. According to the Uniform Crime Handbook the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) recognized a need for crime statistics, nationally. A committee on Uniform Crime Records was developed in 1927.
This was a system for collecting uniform police statistics. After the Committee determined all the factors and completed the assessment, they identified seven crimes that were reported to the national program. These were crimes typically of the blue collar worker, crimes of felonious homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary-breaking or entering, larceny-theft and auto theft. (Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook, By F. B. I 2004) Due to the severe societal and economic impact of white collar crimes and the attention brought to these crimes by the media, more and more white collar criminals are facing stiff criminal penalties.
The Bernie Madoff scandal was hit hard by the media as the worst scandal the world has ever seen in the world of finance. Bernie Madoff was revealed as nothing more than a financial criminal. He was looked at later as just another person that had been dishonest and ended up paying the price. Because of the media reports on Bernie Madoff and other recent Wall Street crimes, white collar workers are looking at long periods of incarceration in federal prisons. The Largest Fraud That the World Has Ever Seen, The Madoff Scandal, 2009) Index one crime, also known as Part I Crimes and Part II Crimes are “Summary Based” terms, in which only agencies that submit Summary Based data produce Part I and Part II crimes. Information from the Incident Based Reporting (IBR) agency is gathered from the Bureau of Criminal Identification (BCI) programs that extracts Summary Data from Incident Based data. This will show what the IBR agency would have submitted if they were a Summary Based agency allowing for comparison between Summary Based and Incident Based agencies.
There are eight index crimes: homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglar, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson. When the news media talk about the crime rates going up or down, they are talking about the eight index crimes. Most all other crimes are Part II crimes and the Uniform Crime Reporting Program gathers only arrest data for Part II Crimes. The BCI extracts Summary Based Part II arrest out of Incident Based Data through a program that allows them to compare Summary Based and Incident Based agencies.
The Part II Offenses are: simple assault, forgery or counterfeiting, fraud, embezzlement, stolen property offenses, vandalism, weapons offenses, prostitution and commercialized vice, sex offenses (except rape and prostitution), drug abuse violations, gambling, Offenses against the family and children, driving under the influence, liquor laws, drunkenness, disorderly conduct, vagrancy, all other offenses (except traffic), curfew and loitering laws (juveniles only), runaways (juveniles only). Part I and Part II totals can be extracted from agencies that do not directly submit Part I and Part II offenses from the Incident Based data. Part I Crimes, Part II Crimes, Group A Offenses, Group B Offenses) ? References Criminalists (2011) what is a Criminalist? Retrieved from: http://www. criminaljusticeprofiles. org/criminologist. html Labor market information, WHAT DOES A CRIMINALIST (FORENSIC SCIENCE TECHNICIAN) DO? (2002) Retrieved from: http://www. calmis. ca. gov/file/occguide/crimnlst. htm What are forensic psychologists? By Marisa Mauro, Psy. D. (june 2010) Retrieved from: http://www. psychologytoday. com/blog/take-all-prisoners/201006/what-is-forensic-psychology
Blue Collar vs. White Collar Crimes Saturday, By admin (April 10th, 2010) -Retrieved from: http://saigonrfc. org/blue-collar-vs-white-collar-crimes. html Part I Crimes, Part II Crimes, Group A Offenses, Group B Offenses, Retrieved from: http://publicsafety. utah. gov/bci/docs/PartOne_GroupA. pdf Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook, By F. B. I (2004) Retrieved from: http://www2. fbi. gov/ucr/handbook/ucrhandbook04. pdf The Largest Fraud That the World Has Ever Seen, The Madoff Scandal, (2009) Retrieved from: http://www. madoffscandal. com/