Role of Packaging on Consumer Buying Behaviour
PROJECT REPORT OF ROLE OF PACKAGING ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Table of Content CONTENTS PAGE NO. Abstract 4
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Chapter 1 Introduction 5 Objectives of the study 6 Key terms Defined 6 Research Question 6 Chapter 2
Theoretical foundation 7 Consumer Buying Behavior 7 Stages of the Consumer Buying Process 8 Types of Consumer Buying Behavior 9 Packaging 15 Objectives of packaging 15 Theatrical Frame work 16
Dependent Variable 16 Independent Variable 17 Packaging color 17 Background-image 17 Packaging Material 17 Font Style 18 Design of wrapper 18 Printed Information 19 Innovation 19 Chapter 3 Data methodology 20 Tools of Data Collection 20 Sampling plan 21 Chapter 4 data analysis 25 Chapter 5 Discussion 28 Conclusions 30
Recommendations 31 Reference 32 ABSTRACT The aim of this thesis is to get the A study to point toward role of packaging on consumer buying behavior. According to this research I have tried to find the positive relationship between independent variable and dependent variables. For collecting the data I have used the questionnaire, while for analysis I have used MS EXCEL SHEET. A sample of 100 consumers will be selected to test the reliability of the model. The significance of the study, its delimitation and limitations are discussed. The consumer buying behavior is dependent variable.
The packaging is the most important factor. Packaging elements like Packaging color, Background Image, Packaging Material, Font Style, Design of wrapper, Printed Information and Innovation is taken as predictors. Due to increasing self-service and changing consumers’ life style, the interest in package as a tool of sales promotion and stimulator of impulsive buying behavior is growing increasingly. So package performs an important role in marketing communication, especially in the point of sale and could be treated as one of the most important factors influencing consumer’s purchase decision.
By this article we seek to reveal elements of package having the ultimate effect on consumer choice. Taking into consideration that package could be treated as a set of various elements communicating different messages to a consumer; the research model was developed and tested in order to reveal impact of visual and verbal package elements on consumer’s purchase decisions. CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION In nowadays competitive environment, the role of package has changed due to increasing self-service and changing consumers’ lifestyle. Firms’ interest in package as a tool of sales promotion is growing increasingly.
Package becomes an ultimate selling proposition stimulating impulsive buying behavior, increasing market share and reducing promotional costs. According to Rundh (2005), package attracts consumer’s attention to particular brand, enhances its image and influences consumer’s perceptions about product. Also package imparts unique value to products (Underwood, Klein & Burke, 2001; Silayoi & Speece,2004), works as a tool for differentiation, i. e. helps consumers to choose the product from wide range of similar products, stimulates customers buying behavior (Wells, Farley &Armstrong, 2007).
Thus package performs an important role in marketing communications and could be treated as one of the most important factors influencing consumer’s purchase decision. In this context, seeking to maximize the effectiveness of package in a buying place, the researches of package, its elements and their impact on consumer’s buying behavior became a relevant issue. Literature analysis on question under investigation has shown that there is no agreement on classification of package elements as well as on research methods of package impact on consumer’s purchase decision.
Some of researchers try to investigate all possible elements of package and their impact on consumer’s purchase decision (Silayoi & Speece, 2004; Silayoi & Speece, 2007; Butkeviciene, Stravinskiene & Rutelione, 2008),while others concentrates on separate elements of package and their impact on consumer buying behavior (e. g. , Vila & Ampuero, 2007; Madden, Hewett & Roth, 2000;Underwood et al. , 2001; Bloch, 1995). Moreover some researchers investigate impact of package and its elements on consumer’s overall purchase decision (e. g. , Underwoodetal, 2001), while others – on every stage of consumer’s decision making process e. g. , Butkeviciene et al. , 2008). In the light of these problematic aspects, research problem could be formulated as following question: “What elements of a package have an ultimate effect on consumer purchase decision? ” OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: * To find out the effect of packaging on the buying behavior. * Theoretical analysis of package elements and their impact on consumer‘s purchase decision empirically reveal the elements having the ultimate effect on consumer choice in a case of different products * To check the effect of packaging elements on the buying behavior. To measure the relative impact of each packaging element on the consumer. * To identify the elements which should be highlight while design the packaging. KEY TERMS DEFINED: CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR Process by which individuals search for, select, purchase, use, and dispose of goods and Services, in satisfaction of their needs and wants. PACKAGING: Packaging can be defined quite simply as an extrinsic element of the product. Packaging is the container for a product. RESEARCH QUESTION: Main Question: Role of Packaging on consumer buying behavior CHAPTER-2 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION
Theoretical frame-work focuses on the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The distinction between dependent and independent variables is as important in a comparative study as in a regression analysis. Dependent variable in case of a comparative study is the one which we aim to predict and independent variables here are the ones who are used to predict the dependent variable. ROLE OF PACKAGING IN CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR: Consumer Buying Behavior: Process by which individuals search for, select, purchase, use, and dispose of goods and Services, in satisfaction of their needs and wants.
Purchase decision making pattern that is a complex amalgam of needs and desires, and is Influenced by factors such as the consumer’s (1) Societal role (parent, spouse, worker, etc. ), (2) Social and cultural environment and norms, and (3) Aspirations and inhibitions Buying Behavior is the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and Using products. Need to understand: * Why consumers make the purchases that they make? * What factors influence consumer purchases? * The changing factors in our society. Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of the ultimate consumer.
A Firm needs to analyze buying behavior for: Buyer’s reactions to a firms marketing strategy has a great impact on the firm’s success. The marketing concept stresses that a firm should create a Marketing Mix (MM) that satisfies (gives utility to) customers, therefore need to analyze the what, where, when and how consumers buy. Marketers can better predict how consumers will respond to marketing strategies. Stages of the Consumer Buying Process Six Stages to the Consumer Buying Decision Process (For complex decisions). Actual purchasing is only one stage of the process.
Not all decision processes lead to a purchase. All consumer decisions do not always include all 6 stages, determined by the degree of complexity. The 6 stages are: a) Problem Recognition- (Awareness of need)—difference between the desired state and the actual condition. Deficit in assortment of products. Hunger– Food. Hunger stimulates your need to eat, Can be stimulated by the marketer through product information–did not know you were deficient? i. e. , see a commercial for a new pair of shoes, stimulates your recognition that you need a new pair of shoes. b) Information search-
Internal search: memory External search if you need more information: Friends and relatives (word of mouth). Marketer dominated sources; comparison shopping; public sources etc. A successful information search leaves a buyer with possible alternatives, the evoked set. Hungry, want to go out and eat, evoked set is Chinese food Indian food burger king etc. c) Evaluation of Alternatives- Need to establish criteria for evaluation, features the buyer wants or does not want. Rank/weight alternatives or resume search may decide that you want to eat something spicy, Indian gets highest rank etc.
If not satisfied with your choice then returns to the search phase. Can you think of another restaurant? Look in the yellow pages etc. Information from different sources maybe treated differently. Marketers try to influence by “framing” alternative. d) Purchase Decision- Choose buying alternative, includes product, package, store, method of purchase etc. e) Purchase- May differ from decision, time lapse between 4 & 5 days, product availability. f) Post-Purchase Evaluation- Outcome: Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction, have you made the right decision. This can be reduced by warranties, after sales communication etc.
TYPES OF CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR Types of consumer buying behavior are determined by: * Level of Involvement in purchase decision. * Importance and intensity of interest in a product in a particular situation. * Buyer’s level of involvement determines why he/she is motivated to seek information about a certain products and brands but virtually ignores others. The four type of consumer buying behavior are: I. Routine Response/Programmed Behavior Buying low involvement frequently purchased low cost items; need very little search and decision effort; purchased almost automatically.
Examples include soft drinks, snack foods, milk etc. II. Limited Decision Making Buying product occasionally. When you need to obtain information about unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category, perhaps. Requires a moderate amount of time for information gathering. Examples include Clothes–know product class but not the brand. III. Extensive Decision Making Complex high involvement, unfamiliar, expensive and/or infrequently bought products. High degree of economic/performance/psychological risk. Examples include cars, homes, computers, education. Spend a lot of time seeking information and deciding.
Information from the companies MM; friends and relatives, store personnel etc. Go through all six stages of the buying process. IV. Impulse buying, no conscious planning. The purchase of the same product does not always elicit the same Buying Behavior. Product can shift from one category to the next. For example: Going out for dinner for one person may be extensive decision making (for someone that does not go out often at all), but limited decision making for someone else. The reason for the dinner, whether it is an anniversary celebration, or a meal with a couple of friends will also determine the extent of the decision making.
CATEGORIES THAT AFFECT THE CONSUMER BUYING DECISION PROCESS A consumer, making a purchase decision will be affected by the following three factors: Personal Psychological Social Personal Demographic Factors (Sex, Race, Age etc. ) Who in the family is responsible for the decision making? Young people purchase things for different reasons than older people. Psychological factors Psychological factors include: Motives: A motive is an internal energizing force that orients a person’s activities toward satisfying a need or achieving a goal. Actions are effected by a set of motives, not just one.
If marketers can identify motives then they can better develop a marketing mix. MASLOW hierarchy of needs!! Physiological Safety Love and Belonging Esteem Self Actualization Need to determine what level of the hierarchy the consumers are at to determine what Motivates their purchases. Perception Perception is the process of selecting, organizing and interpreting information inputs to produce meaning i. e. we chose what info we pay attention to, organize it and interpret it. Information inputs are the sensations received through sight, taste, hearing, smell and touch. Selective Exposure-
Select inputs to be exposed to our awareness. More likely if it is linked to an event, satisfies current needs, intensity of input changes (sharp price drop). Selective Distortion- Changing/twisting current received information, inconsistent with beliefs. Advertisers that use comparative advertisements (pitching one product against another), have to be very careful that consumers do not distort the facts and perceive that the advertisement was for the competitor. A current example… MCI and AT;T… do you ever get confused? Selective Retention- Remember inputs that support beliefs, forgets those that don’t.
Average supermarket shopper is exposed to 17,000 products in a shopping visit lasting 30 minutes-60% of purchases are unplanned exposed to 1,500advertisements per day. Can’t be expected to be aware of all these inputs, and certainly will not retain many. Interpreting information is based on what is already familiar, on knowledge that is stored in the memory Ability and Knowledge- Need to understand individual’s capacity to learn. Learning, changes in a person’s behavior caused by information and experience. Therefore to change consumers’ behavior about your product, need to give them new information re: product… ree sample etc. South Africa… open bottle of wine and pour it!! Also educate American consumers about changes in SA. Need to sell a whole new country. When making buying decisions, buyers must process information. Knowledge is the familiarity with the product and expertise. In experience buyers often use prices as an indicator of quality more than those who have knowledge of a product. Non-alcoholic Beer example: consumers chose the most expensive six-pack, because they assume that the greater price indicates greater quality. Attitudes- Knowledge and positive and negative feelings about an object or ctivity-maybe tangible or intangible, living or non- living….. Drive perceptions. Individual learns attitudes through experience and interaction with other people. Consumer attitudes toward a firm and its products greatly influence the success or failure of the firm’s marketing strategy. Attitudes and attitude change are influenced by consumer’s personality and lifestyle. Consumers screen information that conflicts with their attitudes. Distort information to make it consistent and selectively retain information that reinforces our attitudes i. e. rand loyalty. There is a difference between attitude and intention to buy (ability to buy). Personality- All the internal traits and behaviors that make a person unique, uniqueness arrives from a Person’s heredity and personal experience. Examples include: * Work a holism * Compulsiveness * Self confidence * Friendliness * Adaptability * Ambitiousness * Dogmatism * Authoritarianism * Introversion * Extroversion * Aggressiveness Competitiveness Traits affect the way people behave. Marketers try to match the store image to the perceived image of their customers.
There is a weak association between personality and Buying Behavior; this may be due to unreliable measures. Lifestyles Recent US trends in lifestyles are a shift towards personal independence and individualism and a preference for a healthy, natural lifestyle. Lifestyles are the consistent patterns people follow in their lives. EXAMPLE: healthy foods for a healthy lifestyle, Sun tan not considered fashionable in US until 1920’s. Now an assault by the American Academy of Dermatology. Social Factors Consumer wants, learning, motives etc. are influenced by opinion leaders, person’s Family reference groups, social class and culture.
Opinion leaders Spokespeople etc. Marketers try to attract opinion leaders… they actually use (pay) spokespeople to market their products. Michael Jordon (Nike, McDonalds, Gatorade etc. )Can be risky… Michael Jackson… OJ Simpson… Chevy Chase Roles and Family Influences Role… things you should do based on the expectations of you from your position within a group. People have many roles. Husband, father, employer/e. Individuals role are continuing to change therefore marketers must continue to update information. Family is the most basic group a person belongs to.
Reference Groups Individual identifies with the group to the extent that he takes on many of the values, attitudes or behaviors of the group member. Families, friends, sororities, civic and professional Organizations. Any group that has a positive or negative influence on a person’s attitude and behavior. Membership groups (belong to) Affinity marketing is focused on the desires of consumers that belong to reference groups. Marketers get the groups to approve the product and communicate that approval to its members. Credit Cards etc.!! Aspiration groups (want to belong to)
Disassociate groups (do not want to belong to) Honda, tries to disassociate from the “biker” group. The degree to which a reference group will affect a purchase decision depends on an individuals susceptibility to reference group influence and the strength of his/her involvement with the group. Social Class An open group of individuals who have similar social rank. US is not a classless society. US criteria; occupation, education, income, wealth, race, ethnic groups and possessions. Social class influences many aspects of our lives. I. e. upper middle class Americans prefer luxury cars Mercedes.
Upper Americans-upper-upper class, . 3%, inherited wealth, aristocratic names. Lower-upper class, 1. 2%, newer social elite, from current professionals and corporate Elite. Upper-middle class, 12. 5%, college graduates, managers and professionals Middle Americans-middle class, 32%, average pay white collar workers and blue collar, friends Working class, 38%, average pay blue collar workers, Lower Americans-lower class, 9%, working, not on welfare, Lower-lower class, 7%, on welfare, Social class determines to some extent, the types, quality, quantity of products that a person buys or uses.
Lower class people tend to stay close to home when shopping; do not engage in much prepurchase information gathering. Stores project definite class images. Family, reference groups and social classes are all social influences on consumer behavior. All operate within a larger culture. Culture and Sub-culture Culture refers to the set of values, ideas, and attitudes that are accepted by a homogenous group of people and transmitted to the next generation. Culture also determines what is acceptable with product advertising.
Culture determines what people wear, eat, reside and travel. Cultural values in the US are good health, education, individualism and freedom. In American culture time scarcity is a growing problem i. e. change in meals. Big impact on international marketing. Different society, different levels of needs, different cultural values. Culture can be divided into subcultures: Geographic regions Human characteristics such as age and ethnic background i. e. West Coast, teenage and Asian American. Culture effects what people buy, how they buy and when they buy. What is packaging?
The definitions of ‘packaging’ vary and range from being simple and functionally focused to more extensive, holistic interpretations. Packaging can be defined quite simply as an extrinsic element of the product (Olson and Jacoby (1972)) – an attribute that is related to the product but does not form part of the physical product itself. “Packaging is the container for a product– encompassing the physical appearance of the container and including the design, color, shape, labeling and materials used”(Arens,1996). Objectives of packaging Packaging and package labeling have several objectives: Physical Protection – Protection of the objects enclosed in the package from shock, vibration, compression, temperature, etc. •Barrier Protection – A barrier from oxygen, water vapor, dust, etc. • Containment or Agglomeration – Small objects are typically grouped together in one package for transport and handling efficiency. Alternatively, bulk Commodities (such as salt) can be divided into packages that are a more suitable Size for individual households. •Information transmission – Information on how to use, transport, recycle, or Dispose of the package or product is often contained on the package or label. Reducing theft – Packaging that cannot be re-closed or gets physically damaged (Shows signs of opening) is helpful in the prevention of theft. Packages also provide opportunities to include anti-theft devices. •Convenience – features which add convenience in distribution, handling, display, Sale, opening, re-closing, use, and re-use. •Marketing – The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage Potential buyers to purchase the product. THEATRICAL FRAME WORK Independent variable Packaging color Background image Dependent variable
Font Style consumer buying behavior Packaging material Design of wrapper Printed information Innovation Independent Variable Dependent Variable 1. Packaging color 1. Consumer Buying Behavior 2. Background Image 3. Packaging Material 4. Font Style 5. Design of wrapper 6.
Printed Information 7. Innovation Packaging color Color plays an important role in a potential customer’s decision making process, certain colors set different moods and can help to draw attention. One good example of successful use of color psychology is in the Apple iPod advertisements; they use simple tri tone color schemes of black, white and a bright background color. The bright background color is to give the advertisement a fun feel and the contrasting white on black is to focus attention. Meaning of the Color Blue Blue is the most common favorite color and is liked by both genders.
Blue is seen as a trustworthy, peaceful and calm color and is often related to the sky or water. Blue is usually cool and quiet but more electric shades can give a dynamic feel. Although blue has the benefits of gender indifference and being the most common favorite color, the overuse of blue can seem cold or uncaring. Blue is often used because it is the designer’s favorite color but after considering the meaning of other colors, another color may be a better choice. Meaning of the Color Green Green is related to life and nature; if you want to give your product a natural feel use green.
Green is the second most popular color and the most popular shades of green are the blue-greens, which should be expected when blue and green are the two most popular colors. Yellow-greens should be avoided around food products as the color will act as an appetite-depressant. As well as the natural feel greens have, they can also signify money, health and power. Meaning of the Color Yellow Yellow is a very useful color because it is the most easily noticed, it will grab the attention of a person so can be a good choice for things such as magazine advertisements which may usually be ignored due to ad blindness.
Yellow signifies happiness, optimism and warmth but also caution. The main advantage of yellow is its attention grabbing feature so a combination of blue and yellow can be a successful color scheme which could create a cool and calm mood from the blue but still draw attention because of the yellow. Background-image The background image property specifies the background image for an element. When setting a background image, authors should also specify a background color property that will be used when the image is unavailable. Note also that when the image is available, it is rendered on top of the background color.
Thus, in any transparent areas of the image, the background color will be visible. Packaging Material Any material used especially to protect something- packing, wadding. Consumer can change its decision regarding Packaging material. High quality Packaging attract consumer then low quality Packaging. The first packages used the natural materials available at the time: Baskets of reeds, wineskins (Bota bags), wooden boxes, pottery vases, ceramic amphorae, wooden barrels, woven bags, etc. Processed materials were used to form packages as they were developed: for example, early glass and bronze vessels.
The study of old packages is an important aspect of archaeology. Iron and tin plated steel were used to make cans in the early 19th century. Paperboard cartons and corrugated fiberboard boxes were first introduced in the late 19th century. Packaging advancements in the early 20th century included Bakelite closures on bottles, transparent cellophane over wraps and panels on cartons, increased processing efficiency and improved food safety. As additional materials such as aluminum and several types of plastic were developed, they were incorporated into packages to improve performance and functionality.
So packaging material have strong have with buying behavior. Font Style The font style of Packaging grabs customer attraction. The up gradation of IT technology have support this feature. The successful companies have best practices of the font styles. They hire specialist in composing which create mind blowing and attractive font styles. The attractive package has innovative font style. So we can say that there is relation between font style and buying behavior Design of wrapper The over all design also play a vital role in attracting the consumer.
Mostly the children of 10-18 years are so sensitive to the design of wrapper. The companies try their best to create attractive design of packaging Printed Information Container or wrapper for a consumer product that serves a number of purposes including protection and description of the contents, theft deterrence, and product promotion. The labels on packages are important components of the overall marketing mix and can support advertising claims, establish brand identity, enhance name recognition, and optimize shelf space allocations.
The consumer can change his decision on the basis of information printed on the packaging. Mostly in Merchandises and daily FMCG the consumer can perform evaluation on the basis of printed information. Innovation Innovative packaging may actually add value to the product if it meets a consumer need such as portion control, recyclability, tamper-proofing, child-proofing, easy-open, easy-store, easy-carry, and non breakability. Manufacturers today strive to have packaging that maintains the key equities of the brand, has stand out appeal on the retailer’s shelf, and is sustainable but with lower production costs.
The customer can adopt product on the basis of its innovative packaging, which shows the relation between buying behavior and innovation of packaging. CHAPTER-3 DATA & METHODOLOGY OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: Objective of this research is to find out the role of packaging on the consumer buying behavior. SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION: 1. Primary data:- Primary data were collected by questionnaire, which contained 20 questions relating to the study. 2. Secondary data:- Secondary Data were collected form references, books, journals, and articles.. SAMPLING PLAN: * SAMPLING UNIT: the population of my study will be students and housewives SAMPLE SIZE: The sample size of 100 people is selected for conducting the study. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT The questionnaire was used as the primary instrument for the collection of primary data which contained 20 questions related to the study. DATA ANALYSIS Analysis was done using the simple average method so that, finding of the survey was easily comprehensible by all. The analysis of data was done with the help of MS excel. There are at least 25 questions in the survey obtaining data for all independent variable and some questions were directly obtaining data with no complications.
Measure for each variable is defined below: Dependent Variable Consumer Buying Behavior Independent Variable Packaging color Background Image Packaging Material Font Style Design of wrapper Printed Information Innovation Each of above mentioned variable was measure by asking the seven questions by using the 5-points itemized rating type scale ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree PREPARING THE QUESTIONNAIRE The first task in the research was to prepare the questionnaire for the data collection related to the research.
In the questionnaire mainly the focus was on to find out the impact of all the independent variable of advertisement. 1. Packaging color 2. Background Image 3. Packaging Material 4. Font Style 5. Design of wrapper 6. Printed Information 7. Innovation Questionnaire on role of packaging on consumer buying behavior Name :___________ age: ___________ gender :__________ education:_____________ Rating dimension: 1- Strongly disagree 2- Disagree 3- Both 4- Agree – Strongly agree 1. Do you like the packaging of any product/brand? (specify) ____________________________________________________________ _ 2. Packaging is attractive? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 3. You purchase goods as advised by your family? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 4. You think product offered by the leading brands are always quite better? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 5. You select product according to your lifestyle? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6. You like the color of the packaging? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 7. Color of packaging matters you in purchasing the product? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 8. You like beautiful background? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 9. You prefer product packaging having attractive background ? | 2| 3| 4| 5| 10. The quality of packaging can save product better? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 11. The product packed in high quality material is more preferable? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 12. Font styles are attractive? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 13. You like attractive font style on the packaging of any product? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 14. Wrapper design is important in packaging? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 15. Wrapper design inspire you in buying the product? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 16. You read printed information on the packaging of the product? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 17. You evaluate the quality of product on the basis of information printed on the package? | 2| 3| 4| 5| 18. You prefer product with better handling and transportation? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 19. Innovation is important in packaging? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 20. The innovative packaging influence your decision while purchasing? 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| CHAPTER-4 DATA ANALYSIS CHAPTER-5 CONCLUSIONS Results of research on role of packaging on consumer’s buying behavior stipulated following conclusions * Package could be treated as one of most valuable tool in today’s marketing communications, necessitating more detail analysis of its elements and an impact of those elements on consumers buying behavior. Appropriate and vivid picture or packaging color which delivers them a happy feeling, or an easy handle/open/dose/dispose package shape. All these elements contribute each important effort to catch consumers’ attention and interest. Besides each element’s single function, we think that a good combination of those elements may let the product more eye-catching and attractive. * The impact of package and its elements on consumer’s purchase decision can be revealed by analyzing an importance of its separate elements for consumer’s choice.
For this purpose main package’s elements could be identified: graphic, color, size, form, and material of packaging are considered, wrapper design, printed information, and innovation while product information, producer, country-of-origin and brand are considered as important ones. Moreover, the impact of package elements on consumers purchase decisions should be evaluated depending on the consumer’s involvement level, time pressure or individual characteristics of consumers. Empirically testing the research model proposed, package elements having the ultimate effect on consumer choice in a case of different products from group of convenience goods were determined: * It has revealed that elements of package are the most important for consumer’s purchase decision. For a major part of consumers’ a size and material are the main visual elements, while product information is also the main verbal elements when purchasing milk and washing-powder. Results of analyzing the impact of package elements on consumers purchase decisions depending on level of involvement correspond with those of theoretical studies and let us stating that visual elements of package have relatively stronger influence on consumer’s purchasing when they are in the level of “low involvement”, in opposite to those who are in the level of “high involvement”. * Packaging has a better reach than advertising does, and can set a brand apart from its competitors. It promotes and reinforces the purchase decision not only at the point of purchase, but also every time the product is used.
Packaging in different serving sizes can extend a product into new target markets or help to overcome cost barriers. Packaging can even drive the brand choice (especially in the context of children’s products). * Research into packaging has found that different packaging cues impact how a product is perceived. Often the packaging is perceived to be part of the product and it can be difficult for consumers to separate the two (the concept of gestalt). Aspects such as packaging color, typography, illustrations and graphics can influence how a product is perceived. According to my research, I found out that most consumers like the product quality after they purchased their desired packaged products. Based on those facts, we can not say there is a 100% equal relationship between good package and good product quality, but there is a positive thinking and trend about well-designed package shows high product quality. As a matter of fact, people are becoming more and more demanding; packaging has been gradually shown his important role in a way to serving consumer by providing information and delivering functions.
With its different functionality to ease and to communicate with consumers, there is no doubt about increasingly important role of packaging as a strategic tool to attract consumers’ attention and their perception on the product quality RECOMMENDATIONS * Brand is important and its strategy is in consideration in the units. Product packaging is valuable for brand equity, product differentiation, market segmentation, new product introduction, pricing, promotion etc. Brand name using plan implementation must be effective in the units. All the marketing units pay attention for good packaging. They accept that poor packaging is one of the causes of product failure in the market. It is necessary to set the packaging standard and to implement accordingly for better protection and promotion of a product. * Consumer new product manufacturers mostly use the label in their products. Basically they describe that made it, where it was made, when it was made, what it contains, how to use it etc. Further more they believe that the consumers are properly guided by label to use the products.
The information given in the label and its value have to be highlighted while promoting the product in the market. It must also be more useful technically. * I do believe that culture difference does have an impact on companies’ initiatives to design the product package, for instance, during our research; the choices of packaging colors are quite different between the West and Far East. Thus, we think that it is important for international companies to take a consideration of culture differences when they design the product package. REFERENCES * WIKIPEDIA * CONSUMER BEHAVIOR—M. KHAN * WIKIPEDIA