Florence Nightingale: a Leader in Nursing
Running head: A LEADER IN NURSING A Leader in Nursing, Organizations and Carper’s Way of Knowing Crystle Eldridge University of Maine at Fort Kent Nursing Leader (Question 1) Nursing has evolved as a scientific discipline and is starting to emerge into professional status. One of the great leaders in nursing who helped this change take place was Florence Nightingale. Nightingale is considered as a pioneer in the nursing profession. She has contributed a lot in the field of nursing and her works are considered as assets, and will be remembered for many years.
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Florence Nightingale was born in 1820 in Florence, Italy, and was named after her birthplace. Nightingale died in 1910. She was a brilliant mathematician, and used statistics in achieving her reforms. Florence was a well-educated woman in a number of fields other than math; she was educated by her father in history, economics, astronomy, science, philosophy, and a number of languages. (Florence Nightingale. 2008) Florence, at thirty-one, went to Kaiserwerth, Germany where she studied to become a nurse at the Institute of Protestant Deaconesses. Simkin, J. , 1997) Nightingale’s lasting contributions are her roles in founding and setting high standards for the nursing profession and founding training schools for nurses. She believed that nursing involves environmental manipulation, nutrition, and conservation of patient energy. All these aspects are concerned with the wellness and health of the individual. She set an excellent example for nurses everywhere of compassion, commitment to patient care, as well as diligent and thoughtful hospital administration.
She was the first nurse to exert political pressure on government to improve health conditions. (Blais, K. K. , Hayes, J. S. , Kozier, B. , & Erb, G. 2006) Florence Nightingale defined nursing as “the act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery”. (Bermin, A. , Snyder, S. J. , Kozier, B. , Erb, G. 2008) Nightingale linked health with five environmental factors: 1. pure or fresh air, 2. pure water, 3. efficient drainage, 4. cleanliness and 5. light, especially sunlight.
She believed that deficiencies in these five factors produce illness or a decline in health. Florence Nightingale played an important role in the Crimean War (1854-1856) by recruiting female nurses to provide care to the sick and injured. When she got there she was mortified by the conditions of the hospital and the way in which the soldiers were being looked after; most of them died from sickness due to the hospitals conditions rather than battle wounds. Nightingale and her nurses were able to transform military hospitals by setting up sanitation practices.
These sanitation practices included hand washing and the washing of clothes on a regular basis. These changes helped reduce the mortality rate from 42% to 2% in the Barrack Hospital in Turkey. (Bermin, A. , Snyder, S. J. , Kozier, B. , Erb, G. 2008) Due to her contribution to army statistics, Nightingale became the first woman elected fellow of the Statistical Society. (Simkin, J. , 1997) Florence Nightingale’s theory of environmental manipulation is being implemented by nurses across the world. This theory lays emphasis on the environment and the affects of the environment.
Nightingale’s general concepts about ventilation, cleanliness, maintaining a noise-free environment, warmth, and attending to the diet needs of individual patients remains an important part of nursing today and is considered a standard in nursing. Research shows that implication of this theory is still going on and the patients are benefiting from the treatment which they receive. The utility of this theory can be judged by the fact that many years have passed but still this theory is taught in nursing schools.
The contributions of Florence Nightingale are innumerable and all are advantageous in one way or another. As she devised all her methodologies and theories with the belief that illness is a reparative process by nature, it is a period of test. (Florence Nightingale, 2008) Carper’s Ways of Knowing (Question 2) Carper’s fundamental ways of knowing attempts to classify the different sources from which knowledge and beliefs in nursing can or have been derived. It is a tool for helping with clearer and more complete thinking and learning about experiences.
The four fundamental patterns of knowing include: empirical, personal, ethical and aesthetic. The first way of knowing, empirical, is factual knowledge that can be found in books and research. The second way of knowing, personal knowledge, incorporates the lived experience that each nurse brings to the situation. The third way of knowing, ethical knowledge, consists of one’s moral and religious beliefs. The last way of knowing is aesthetic knowledge, which employs both intuition and understanding to appreciate the individuality of each patient. Caper’s fundamental ways of knowing. , 2008) Empirical Working in an oral surgeons office I am able to apply Carper’s ways of knowing when caring for my patients. Here I will talk about a patient in their mid twenties that needed to have a central incisor extracted. This patient did not have the financial means to replace the tooth. Using empirical knowledge I was able to talk with my patient about the reasons the tooth needed to be extracted, and the possible outcomes if the tooth was not removed. Once a tooth has decay, cracks or the pulp dies, it can become non-viable.
At this point you may not be able to save the tooth and extraction is the only option. If the tooth was left in place, the tissue around the tooth may become infected and an abscess could form at the apex of the root. Leaving the tooth in place could cause more systemic problems then just the original tooth ache. Personal Applying personal knowledge, I was able to identify with the patients feeling and imagine myself in their shoes. In this situation, I did for my patient what I would want done for me or my family members. I sympathized with them about the loose of their tooth and what that represents to them.
Not only were they loosing their front tooth, they were also feeling the stigma that comes from societies views of missing teeth. I made sure that I treated the patient as a person having an extraction, not just the extraction in room 4. Ethical Using ethical knowledge I was able to talk to my patient about the prevention of complications. Rather then telling the patient that since you are not in pain right now there is no reason to worry about that tooth, I informed them of possible complications if the problem was not addressed. The tooth would have become non-vital and that is the reason they were no longer feeling pain.
If I let my patient walk out of the office knowing this, there could be severe health complications. Aesthetically having a front tooth remain in place would be the ideal situation, but ethically it would be wrong not to inform them what could happen of they did not have the tooth removed. Aesthetic Applying aesthetic knowledge was when I talked to my patient about their immediate situation. I recognize my patients circumstances as uniquely individual. My patient would now have to live in a word that is very focused on appearances, without a front tooth.
Rather then giving them information about dental implants, since they were not in a financial situation that would allow this, I talked to them about fixed bridges, removable partials and essex splints. I talked with my patient about what we would be able to do for them at that time; the here and now. By acknowledging that not all knowing is empirical, both courses allow for discussions regarding simulated and actual patient, family, nurse, and system scenarios that recognize the importance of ethical, personal, and aesthetic knowledge.
Carper’s ways of knowing for nurses allows for a greater understanding of the patients situation. It helps in treating the patients as a person and not a condition. Professional Nursing Associations (Question 3) There are many professional nursing organizations available to all fields of nursing. Several of these include the ANA, NLN, AACN, NSNA, Sigma Theta and the state boards of nursing. As a new RN I belong to the ANA. ANA American Nurses Association (ANA) started in 1896 as the Nurses Associated Alumnae and was renamed the American Nurses Association in 1911. It’s headquarters are in Silver Spring, Maryland.
The Association is a professional organization representing registered nurses (RNs) in the United States through its 54 constituent member associations. The ANA is involved in establishing standards of nursing practice, promoting the rights of nurses in the workplace, and advancing the economic and general welfare of nurses. The ANA is the strongest voice for the nursing profession. (American Nurses Association. 2008) The ANA is dedicated to ensuring that an adequate supply of highly-skilled and well-educated nurses is available and is committed to meeting the needs of nurses as well as health care consumers.
The ANA helps gain better compensation and better working conditions for nurses, and implementing new ways in which nursing services can be delivered to respond to current and future demands for cost-effective, quality health care. (Bermin, A. , Snyder, S. J. , Kozier, B. , Erb, G. , 2008) The ANA also advances the nursing profession by fostering high standards of nursing practice, projecting a positive and realistic view of nursing, and by lobbying the Congress and regulatory agencies on health care issues affecting nurses and the general public. Blais, K. K. , Hayes, J. S. , Kozier, B. , & Erb, G. , 2006) Personally, what I gain from the ANA is having an organization that is looking out for my best interests as an RN. The ANA is the voice that is heard through policy development, lobbying, publications/newsletters, involvement and partnerships with other organizations, and our presence on the Internet. The ANA’s work addresses the needs of RN’s in their professional settings as well as patient care. NLN
The National League of Nursing (NLN) was founded in 1893 as the American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses and was the first organization for nursing in the U. S. In 1912 it was renamed the National League for Nursing Education and released the first Standard Curriculum for Schools of Nursing in 1917. In 1952 the NLN combined with the National Organization for Public Health Nursing and the Association for Collegiate Schools of Nursing as the National League for Nursing and assumed responsibility for the accreditation of nursing schools in the U. S. (Bermin, A. , Snyder, S. J. , Kozier, B. Erb, G. , 2008) The NLN is an organization whose mission is to promote “excellence in nursing education to build a strong and diverse nursing workforce” (NLN, 2009) NLN members include nurse educators, education agencies, health care agencies, and interested members of the public. The NLN offers faculty development programs, networking opportunities, testing and assessment and nursing research grants. (Blais, K. K. , Hayes, J. S. , Kozier, B. , & Erb, G. , 2006) AACN The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) is the national voice for America’s baccalaureate and higher degree nursing education programs. Blais, K. K. , Hayes, J. S. , Kozier, B. , & Erb, G. , 2006) The AACN works to establish quality standards for bachelor’s and graduate degree nursing education, assist deans and directors to implement these standards, influence the nursing profession to improve health care, and promote public support of baccalaureate and graduate education, research, and practice in nursing. The AACN supports articulation from associates degree programs to baccalaureate and higher degree programs. The organization desires to strengthen collaboration between ADN and BSN programs.
The organization is also testing a new model of nursing called the clinical nurse leader (CNL). (Bermin, A. , Snyder, S. J. , Kozier, B. , Erb, G. , 2008) NSNA The National Student Nurses Association (NSNA) was established in 1952 for students enrolled on ASN, BSN, diploma, and other graduate nursing programs. The NSNA’s mission is to mentor students preparing for initial licensure as registered nurses, and to convey the standards, ethics, and skills that students will need as responsible and accountable leaders and members of the profession. (Blais, K. K. , Hayes, J. S. , Kozier, B. , & Erb, G. 2006) Sigma Theta Tau Sigma Theta Tau was founded in 1922. The founders chose the society’s name from the meaning of the Greek words Storge, Tharsos, and Time: “love,” “courage” and “honor. ” (Blais, K. K. , Hayes, J. S. , Kozier, B. , & Erb, G. , 2006) Sigma Theta Tau exists to improve the health of people by increasing the scientific base of nursing research. Membership is by invitation to baccalaureate and graduate nursing students who demonstrate excellence in scholarship and to nurse leaders exhibiting exceptional achievements in nursing. (Sigma Theta Tau. , 2008) State Boards of Nursing
State Boards of Nursing establish rules and regulations for the licensure and practice of professional and practical nursing in each state. The boards examine all applicants for licensure and issues licenses for professional nursing and practical nursing to persons passing such examinations and meeting other qualifications for licensure. (Maine State Board of Nursing. ,2011) References American Nurses Association. (2008). New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved September 3, 2011 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/American_Nurses_Association Bermin, A. , Snyder, S. J. , Kozier, B. , Erb, G. (2008).
Fundamentals of Nursing; Concepts, Process, and Practice (8th ed. ) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 6, 9, 11, 21, 29, 40, 43, 87, 163, 295 Blais, K. K. , Hayes, J. S. , Kozier, B. , & Erb, G. (2006). Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives (5th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 17-19, 37-37, 43-45, 97-100 Florence Nightingale. (2008, April 3). New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved 18:44, September 3, 2011 from http://www. newworldencyclopedia. org/entry/Florence_Nightingale? oldid=687142. Caper’s fundamental ways of knowing. (2008). New World Encyclopedia.
Retrieved, September 7, 2011 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Carper’s_fundamental_ways_of_knowing Maine State Board of Nursing. (2011) Board of Nursing Laws and Regulations. Retrieved September 5, 2011 from http://maine. gov/boardofnursing/ NLN. (2009). About the NLN Retrieved, September 3, 2011 from http://www. nln. org/aboutnln/index. htm Sigma Theta Tau. (2008). New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved September 3, 2011 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sigma_Theta_Tau Simkin, J. (1997) Spartacus Educational: Florence Nightingale. Retrieved, September 3, 2011 from http://www. spartacus. schoolnet. co. uk/REnightingale. htm