Research Proposal: the Effect of Immediately Extrinsic Reward in Motivate a Student on Reading
The Effect of Immediately Extrinsic Reward in Motivate a Student on Reading In recent years, much research in education has focused on the concept of motivation (Ames & Ames, 1984, 1985, 1989). There are also many studies in the literature which have attempted to increase primary school student’s attitute toward reading (Dwyer & Reed, 1989; Healy, 1965). What arouse a primary school student to read is a very interesting issue. Many researcher also try to find out the stimulate that make a primary school student to read.
Either parents or teachers also hope their children or their students can read more to improve their academic standard and mostly they will offer some rewards to motivate them. However, the use of rewards in educational as a way to improve children motivation is a controversial issue. Educational psychologists are also disputing whether school should use extrinsic reward to encourage children on reading. There is evidence show that it is a bad idea because when the reward disappears, the motivation of children to read also gone.
In contrast, there is also evidence show that it is a good idea because the extrinsic reward can make the behavior to persist. According to incentive theory, external reward can motivate people to do certain things. Studies also show that when an action done and get rewarded at that time, the effect is greater. The purpose of this research is to find out the effect of immediately extrinsic reward in motivate primary school student on reading. An incentive theory define that our behavior is caused by the environment, external factor or stimuli.
However, it does not mean that those factors will always motivate our behavior, only it will affect our behavior. This theory acts when an external stimuli serve as goals toward which pulls people in certain action. This theory can relate to Skinner’s reinforcement theory. According to Skinner, human behavior is under the control of external rewards. People do certain things is to obtain the reward, to get something. For example, student study is to get a degree certificate. Regardless how, this theory give an idea that the motivation is something external, not internal.
Cognitive is an important factor when relate it to incentive. According to Rotter’s expectancy-value theory, behavior is the result of our expectations of achieving goals and how important the goals have for us. This theory argued that people are goal-oriented beings, what behavior they perform in response is to achieve or get something. Mostly people evaluate behavior based on what they expect the outcome to be and what value they place on the outcome. This theory show that there are a relationship between stimulus and response on affect our cognitive behavior.
As Skinner proposed that our behavior toward certain action is not exactly influenced by the history of reinforcement but is our expectation of reinforcement lead us. In this experimental study, the immediately extrinsic reward become an important factor to affect children’s motivation on reading. The extrinsic reward is an independent variable in this research. The independent variable will serve as an important variable to enhance and control primary school student’s motivation on reading. However, the behavior of primary school student toward certain action become a dependent variable in this research.
The control variables in this study are either give reward to children or do not give reward to children will affect the result of children’s behavior on reading. Acording to incentive theory, Skinner’s reinforcement theory, Rotter’s expectancy theory, people’s behavior is enhanced by external stimuli and reward. Studies also show that humans are more likely to persist when they can get reward immediately. Based from those theories, immediately extrinsic reward can motivate primary student and enhance their behavior on reading.
Literature support that the intangible reward and effort attribution increase both pupils’ intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation positively (Pin-Hwa Chen & Jen-Rung Wu, 2010). From the research of Pin-Hwa Chen and Jen-Rung Wu in 2010 about rewards for reading and their effects on reading motivation found that to be effective, rewards should be intangible rather than tangible. Even the results of the research show that reward can motivate student on reading but they also found that not every reward variable could predict the reading motivation.
Relevant previous studies also show that some reward variables had no effect on reading motivation. According to reinforcement theory, rewards serve as reinforces to enhance behaviors. Rewards can increase not only performance, but also a student’s intrinsic motivation when used properly (e. g. Cameron, 2001; Cameron & Pierce, 1994; Pierce, Cameron, Banko & So, 2003). Some researchers also debate that once the rewards are no longer available, student’s intrinsic motivation is undermined (e. g. Lepper & Greene, 1975; Deci, Koestner & Ryan, 1999, 2001).
Exclude the type of reward, those findings and theories can prove that reward does motivate student on reading. Study of Barbara Ann Marinak and Linda Gambrell in 2004 explored the conditions under which rewards influence reading motivation. This study was conducted based from cognitive evaluation theory (CET) proposed by Deci and his colleagues. CET proposed that under certain conditions, rewarding student for engaging in an activity or behavior will decrease the subsequent engagement in that activity (Deci, 1971 & 1972).
This study was also designed to test the reward proximity hypothesis by Gambrell in 1996 that suggests that type of reward may play an important role in whether motivation is undermined by rewards. In this study the major finding is that students who were given a proximal reward were more motivating on reading compared to students who received a less proximal reward. So, this study suggest that the proximity of the reward does affect the motivation of student to read. However, the type of reward is exclude in this research proposal and would not be the variable to control the motivation of student.
The study of Robert J. Vallerand, Francoys Gagne, Caroline Senecal and Luc G. Pelletier in 1994 found that gifted students perceived themselves as being more cognitively competent and more intrinsically motivated than regular students. From the cognitive evaluation theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991) assume that when individuals feel competent, they will be more motivated. Results form this study support this theory and showing that gifted students perceive themselves as being more cognitively competent and intrinsically motivated than regular students.
Although the type or the proximity of reward may affect the motivation of student on reading, based from incentive theory, Rotter’s expectancy-value theory and some previous study, the giving of reward may affect the motivation of student on reading and enhance behavior. Methods Participants This study will be conducted at SJKC Kwong Hon, a primary school at Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur. The amount of each gender will be balanced to avoid gender biased, 50 female students and 50 male students from standard four will be chosen to participate in this experiment.
Those students will be categorized into two groups, “A” and “B”. “A” group include 25 female students and 25 male students, each students will get reward every time after finnish reading a book. “B” group same as “A” group include 25 female students and 25 male students, they are group that under control of reward giving, each students will be given reward for the first time after reading but no more reward giving to them afterward. Instruments The library of the school will be set as a place to do this experiment. 00 new released books will be used. In this experiment, must ensure that the children had never seen those books to avoid the lack of interesting of children when read. All the books using contain fiction and non-fiction types, three languages are available include English, Malay and Chinese. There are no average distribution of the types and language for the books, however all the books are new release. The rewards are stationary that sponsor by Popular Bookstore, include mechanical pencil, mechanical pencil lead, eraser, ruler and mini notebook.
Two tables will be used to fill in the data collected, one table for group “A” and one table for group “B” to record the number of books the children read. Procedures This study will be conducted in library of SJKC Kwong Hon. 100 standard four students will be chosen and will be divided into “A” group and “B” group, each group contains 25 female students and 25 male students. Gender of students are balance to avoid biased. Those chosen students will be taken to library and they will have three hours to read. Before they start reading, they will be told that after they finnish reading one book they can get a stationary as reward.
The rewards will be given by randomly, students cannot choose which to get. “A” group students can get reward every time after they read but “B” group students only can get reward for first time reading, after that no any reward will be given to them. The reason would not be told to them and researcher would just ignore them when they try to get reward. Every students will be asked to explain what they have read before giving them reward to ensure they are really reading the book. During this three hours, those students behavior will be observed and recorded.
The quantity of books those students read will be collected and record in the table 1 and table 2. Design Before the study start, every students will be told that they can get a reward after they finnish reading a book. The beginning explanation will act as a variable to control and enhance the student motivation on reading. Those students will know that if they read they can get a reward. “A” group students will be given a reward every time after reading a book. Their behavior will be observed and see whether they will continue reading to get more reward.
Students of “B” group is under control group in this study, their behavior will be observed and see whether their motivation to read will reduce when they know they cannot get reward even they read. For “A” group students, the more times they read the more effective the reward enhance their behavior. The data will be collected in table 1. For “B” group students, the less time they read the more effective the reward affect their behavior. The data will be collected in table 2. The average mean for each table will be calculated and compared. References
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