Why Is It Important to Motivate Employees in Organisations. Draw Examples from Two Major Theories of Examonations
Introduction Motivation of employees at work is a subject widely discussed by human resources practioners. A plethora of potential benefits and importance of motivation in an organisation have been laid out and theories have often been used to vividly explain motivation. As such it is the aim of this essay to explain why it is important to motivate employees in an organisation with reference to Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs and McGregor’s theory X and Y of motivation.
Definition of terms Motivation – is defined as a process that account for an individual’s intensity, that is how a person tries, that one’s efforts must be channeled to something and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal, that is how long a person can maintain their effort. Extrinsic Motivation – is when employees are thus motivated by means of external rewards basically consisting of monetary incentives.
Intrinsic Motivation – means that employees do particular tasks because of the satisfaction that they get in performing the task itself, such as recognition advancement. Hodgets, (1985:489) cited that when employees are motivated productivity increases because they discover that their efforts are being appreciated, acknowledged and rewarded. This relates to Maslow’s esteem needs once people begin to satisfy their need to belong. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as production increases.
The ever increasing external forces of national and international competition and economic, social, technological and governmental conditions have forced management to develop and require new techniques to motivate and maintain current levels of organizations efficiency and effectiveness, thereby achieving the esteem need of recognition and achievement and attention. Griffin, (1995:80) pointed out that motivation of employees decreases absenteeism. Motivated employees value their jobs and commit to exceeding management performance expectations.
Not only do motivated employees show up for work more frequently but they are more engaged in the projects they work on and would want to achieve their physiological needs, such as food, shelter, sex, warmth and water hence they shun absenteeism. Managers should create an environment where employees love to come to work because they enjoy their jobs. Employees can be motivated by participating in making decisions about their own job instead of just telling them how to do their own job.
By doing so employees morale is increased as McGregor’s Theory Y will have positive assumptions that employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. This will help employees to exercise self direction and seek control if they are committed to the objectives. (Wallace 1977:89) Robbins, (1998:156 ) of the view that motivation improves financial stability of employees especially the old age as they retire, they are guaranteed their safety and security as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs states. Employees are able to receive their pensions and also retire and continue benefiting from the organisation.
Motivating employees also help the organisation in improving industrial relations or harmony as McGregor’s theory suggest that such ideas as participative decision making, responsible and challenging jobs and good relations as approaches that would maximize an employee’s job motivation. Wallace, (1977:87) cited that motivation of employees result in lowered employee turnover. The more motivated and satisfied employees are, the more likely they are to stay in an organisation. As this relates to Maslow’s social acceptance need.
Employees are social beings, they need to belong, to be accepted by others and also needs security and protection, above all a sense of belongingness. This also strengthens an organizations bottom line as it lowers costs of hiring, recruiting and training employees. Every individual needs motivation to work and the challenges faced by managers is the motivation of employees. Every individual has needs that require satisfaction and needs motivation to work. Motivation is a huge factor in an organisation especially for employees to work harder. According to Griffin, (1995:78) the starting point of motivational process is a need.
Motivation is a huge push in an organization especially for employees. The job of the manager in an organisation is to get the work done through the employees working under him, therefore it is important to motivate his or her employees to perform as this will help the manager in achieving the set goals. (Wallace 1977:89). Managers should create an environment where employees love to come to work because they enjoy their jobs. Incentives motivate the employees when you want them to go an extra mile to achieve your targets. The certain motivational drives affect humans in their thinking pattern, actions and behavior, (Robbins, 1998:186).
Wallace, (1977:89) is of the view that employees are motivated in different ways according to their needs, for example an employee will be motivated to do his task by way of responsibility while on the other hand another employee will be motivated by monetary reward, therefore highly motivated employees are considered to be true assets for any organisation. Once employees are motivated they basically become energetic and very much eager to take additional responsibilities thus pleasant to be with and to work with. Presenting challenging jobs to employees who are motivated can help the organisation to perform better, (Mitchel 1989:12).
Creative visualization is a technique and it gives an individual that power through which one can see their ideas and images related to the goal. Robbins, (2003:156) sites that in Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory, as illustrated below: Self Actualization Esteem and Ego needs Social – acceptance Safety – security needs Physiological needs Physiological needs, these are basic needs for sustaining human life itself. Such as food, warmth, water, sex, sleep and shelter. Maslow took the position that until these needs are satisfied to the degree necessary to maintain life, other need will not motivate people.
Maslow also sites that since people are social beings, they need to belong, to be accepted by others and also needs security and protection from physical and emotional harm. The employer also needs social affiliation on acceptance, this includes affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship (Robbins 2003:156). According to Maslow esteem needs, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong they tend to want to be held esteem both by themselves and by others. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as power, prestige, status, recognition, self respect, achievement and attention, all being external and internal esteem.
Maslow regards self actualization as the highest need in his hierarchy. It is the desire to become what one is capable of becoming. (Robbins 2003:156) sites it as growth, achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment. All these theories are classified as lower order needs that are satisfied externally, physiologically and safety needs. Also higher –order needs that are satisfied internally- social, esteem and self actualization needs. Stonner, (1995:447) sites Theory X and Theory Y as motivational theories. McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings one basically negative which is theory X and the other positive labeled theory Y.
According to Robbins, (2003:157) theory X manager’s assumptions is that employees inherently dislike work and whenever possible will avoid it. Also according to theory Y employees must be coerced, controlled, punished or threatened to achieve goals. Employees also will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. Lastly workers place security above all other factor associate with work and will display little ambition. Having these negative views about the nature of human beings, (Stoner 1995:448) McGregor’s theory Y have positive assumptions.
Firstly employees can view work as being as natural a rest or play. Also people will exercise self direction and seek control if they are committed to the objectives. Thirdly n average person can learn to accept, even seek responsibility. Last but not least the ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole provider of those in management positions. Theory X assumes that lower –order needs dominate individuals. Theory Y assumes that higher –order needs dominate individuals.
McGregor beliefs that Theory Y assumptions were more valid than theory X. Therefore he proposed such ideas as participative decision making, responsible and challenging jobs, and good relations as approaches that would maximize an employee’s job motivation. Conclusion In conclusion it is extremely difficult for an organisation to sustain when the workforce is demotivated, this results that employees can be a biggest threat to the existence of a company. The writer is of the view that employees are the life blood of the organisation hence the importance to motivate as explained in this essay.