Egyptians Have A Long History With Artifacts English Literature Essay

Egyptians Have A Long History With Artifacts English Literature Essay

Egyptians have a long history with artefacts that today we view as “ art. ” However, “ there was no Egyptian word for art, ” and the “ Egyptians ‘ stuff artefacts were functional instead than being designed for aesthetic entreaty, ” ( Robins, 16 ) . Egyptian pieces were non pieces at all, but “ each artefact, instead than being created for the intent of being viewed as in a museum was representational of what the Pharaoh would necessitate to go on his life and the life of Egypt after his decease, ” ( Robins, 19, 29 ) . Egyptians, at first glimpse appear to be, a solemn, formal people obsessed with decease and the readyings for it, but in truth, the Egyptian civilisation was a really advanced civilisation whose art indicated that Egyptians believed that by “ take parting in sacred rites and communing through temples, the Pharaoh ‘s life after decease was ensured ” ( Harris, 20, 21 ) ; in consequence, the Pharaoh would be able to restart day-to-day activities, wonts, and avocations, merely as he had during his life on Earth. “ Egyptians were non afraid of decease as they did n’t see decease as an stoping, ” ( Bleiberg, 23 ) but merely another beginning which would doubtless take to continued connection to the Gods, their religious two-base hit ( the Ka ) , and mercenary things from Egypt every bit long as the appropriate burial procedures-complete with their attendant artifacts- were carried out.

To guarantee this continuance of godly life and to fix for the metempsychosis, which was imminent in the Egyptian head, the Egyptian people built luxuriant pyramids which were to function as “ places ” for the asleep Pharaoh so that his organic structure and spirit could safely brood and go on the connexion with the Gods which would guarantee the continued being of the Egyptian people. As the Pharaoh was viewed as the life manifestation of “ God, ” luxuriant readyings had to be made for the saving of his organic structure which he would necessitate to repossess one time reborn in the hereafter. Hence, the procedure of mummification which operated as a type of organic structure refinisher or “ container for the spirit ” ( Bleiberg, 29 ) evolved to be certain that one time the Pharaoh reached his finish, his organic structure would be integral so that he could efficaciously go on his life after decease.

The procedure of mummification, itself, was a complex one, affecting the “ remotion of the Pharaoh ‘s bodily variety meats which were interred into particular jars so that they could be retrieved by the resurrected Pharaoh when needed, ” ( Bleiberg, 29 ) . The grave alleviation, which are interpreted as art, were present in every Pharaoh ‘s grave, and “ served to supply encouragement comfort, and cognition ” ( Bleiberg, 24 ) to the deceased so that he might see them as a reminder of his station and responsibilities in life every bit good as the familiar events traveling on at place ( in Egypt ) which he might bask one time he had been wholly resurrected and restored to his former ego. The grave alleviations frequently depicted cheery images of female instrumentalists dancing while playing their chosen instrument, nutrient and nutrient offerings, solemn formal images of the Pharaoh with his household, advisers, entirely, or with the Gods themselves.

However, every bit beautiful as Egyptian art is to see today, the really fact that we are sing it is in direct contradiction to what the Egyptians intended their “ art ” to be as it was “ functional to the decease and metempsychosis procedure ” ( Robins, 29 ) . The artefacts that we, today, name Egyptian art were designed for the Pharaoh ‘s metempsychosis and his hereafter to guarantee Egypt ‘s continued connexion and blessing from their Supreme beings.


Death, as it was ineluctable was seen by the ancient Egyptian as an ageless province of being, therefore they attempted to fix, through their mummifying techniques and burial processs, every bit much as possible for the metempsychosis which was certain to take topographic point one time the entombment processs had been completed.

While mas and grave hoarded wealths are now thought of as artistic, in truth, each measure taken in mummification was one of map, taken to guarantee the “ ageless saving and protection of the asleep, “ ( Hart, 14 ) . Assured within themselves of the procedures of metempsychosis, ancient Egyptians took attention to non merely dissemble the organic structure so that it would be to the full integral for the journey into the hereafter, they besides wrapped and saved internal variety meats for the Pharaoh ‘s ulterior usage. Visceras, as portion of the ritualistic entombments and saving procedures were finely removed from the organic structure, “ bandaged individually and placed into particular canopic jars which were topped with an carnal caput ; this ‘God-head ‘ acted as defender of the specified organ which lay interior, ” ( Chrisp, 35 ) .

The organic structure itself, after being dried out with salts, was wrapped in protective linen, frequently with enchantments and or talismans hidden inside the patchs to help the ma in its metempsychosis. Before being wholly shrouded in the linen patchs, nevertheless, the ma ‘s face and organic structure “ was stuffed with fabrics so that it would look Fuller ” ( Deady, 36 ) about as if he still walked and stood under his ain power. Yet the deceased would be unable to to the full finish his Resurrection were it non for the priests diligence in finishing specialised rites, “ frequently watched over and guided by the God of mummification, ‘Anubis ‘ represented in Egyptian art as a Canis aureus, ” ( Gogerly, 15 ) . The Egyptian mentality was one which viewed the “ procedure of artistic creative activity through mummification, as a procedure necessary to see by charming agencies the continued being of the characterized Pharaoh or to offer a dwelling topographic point for his Godhead presence, ” ( Egyptian Art and Architecture, 1451 ) .

The casket itself, now prized for its intricate prowess was a vas to guarantee the safety of the ma within. Designed beautifully to be a “ representation of the Pharaoh as a Godhead being ” ( Robins, 250 ) , the ma instances besides, as stated by Chrisp, “ provided a replacement organic structure which the Pharaoh ‘s spirit would acknowledge and reinhabit after metempsychosis ” ( 34 ) . “ Eyess ” as noted by McCall, “ were carved into mummy instances before the concluding entombment guaranting the deceased would hold ageless sight ” ( 18 ) and to guarantee the asleep Pharaoh would recover control of his “ address, sight, and hearing, priests, clad as Anubis, performed the ‘Opening of the Mouth Ceremony, ‘ ” ( Chrisp, 33 ) before the casket was sealed off everlastingly.

The artistic artefacts that came out of the mummification procedure served a necessary and functional intent and make attest to the Egyptian ‘s love of beauty. Their concern for “ public-service corporation ” of the artefacts they surrounded themselves with upon decease was foremost in their heads as they prepared themselves for their journey to their ageless life.


Egyptian pyramids, served non merely as a conventionalized and built-in constituent of the Egyptian religious Resurrection which distorted the crisp division between life and decease, pyramids were besides a position symbol which allowed them to be regarded as a “ house of infinity ” for the asleep Pharaoh brooding within, expecting his metempsychosis which would reconstruct him to his former position and let the continued connexion with the Gods of Egypt, guaranting Egypt ‘s being. “ Death was every bit of import as life as evidenced by the pyramids whose intricate architectural design non merely took into history the exigencies of mundane stuff but besides acquired a particular and even greater significance by virtuousness of the fact that they institutionalized adult male ‘s reading of his faith, province, and community ” ( Baumgart, 8 ) . Thus, after decease the organic structures were interred in the immense mystical buildings with much of the person ‘s prized ownerships which he would necessitate and or want upon his return to life.

In the Pharaoh ‘s head it would be a great waste to waste immense sums of clip, fiscal and human resources in the edifice of extraordinary castles which would merely last the length of the Pharaoh ‘s life on Earth. More appropriate, in the Egyptian Pharaoh ‘s head, was the building of a “ place ” which would function him through his ageless life which was certain to cross a greater length of clip than his mortal life. Pyramids were built of rock which was deemed “ least likely to endure the depredations of clip ” ( Malek, 41 ) . Additionally, pyramids were unafraid fortresses thought sturdy plenty to defy all elements which may hold attempted invasion.

As memorials of art, Egyptian pyramids represent the ideals of “ order, balance, preciseness, and harmoniousness ” which the Pharaoh tried to continue in the lives of the Egyptian people ( Malek, 4 ) . Mathematical prowess becomes evident in the pyramid based on their geometric design and balanced proportion. Furthermore, the pyramids were a functional work of art which served multiple intents ; to show regard, exalt the Gods, “ embody the impression of kingship, underpin the privileged place of the elite through which the male monarch governed every bit good as guarantee the asleep Pharaoh had a dependable and safe passageway through which he could be resurrected and go on his function in the self-sustaining system which reinforced and justified the established societal order ” ( Robins, 252 ) .

Tomb Reliefs:

Tomb alleviations, beautiful stylized portrayals of antediluvian Egyptian life frequently represented on the walls of graves, served non merely to leave cognition, encouragement, and information to the deceased as he journeyed into the afterworld, but besides provided a vehicle through which the Pharaoh could build his reading of the Resurrection procedure and the profusion of life which would be unveiled in the hereafter. Tomb alleviation besides acted as a “ motivational factor for the spirit ( Ka ) of the deceased so the Ka would be reborn into deity ” ( Rachewiltz, 42 ) .

Representations of the hereafter decorated the walls of many graves functioning as a usher and compass to supply a history of life ‘s events every bit good as a templet which “ acted on the footing that the deceased would be strengthened by the images and finish his Resurrection so that he, excessively, could bask life in the afterlife, ” ( Otto, 22 ) . The ancient Egyptians believed in the map of their creative activities, therefore Egyptian craftsmans, as noted by Meredith Hooper, “ designed the grave alleviation to non merely last everlastingly as the Pharaoh imagined their spirit would, creative persons besides embedded significances in the pictures, now widely recognized merely as beautiful aesthetic creative activities, ” ( 14 ) .

Egyptian craftsmans, as noted by Chrisp, besides attempted to expose the undertakings which would be in the afterworld as reflected by normally seen grave alleviations exposing “ harvest scenes in which the adult male alongside his married woman would go to to the agriculture as it was thought to be in the hereafter, ” ( 19 ) . Musicians as a mark of how exhaustively the Egyptian enjoyed life were frequently depicted vocalizing or engaged in some signifier of gaiety. Likewise, “ vocals composed on papyri and scenes exposing musical instruments offer a glance of Egyptian revelry ” ( Hart, 50 ) and how closely they thought life in the afterlife was patterned after life on Earth.

This desire by the Egyptian craftsmans to animate life through grave alleviation is besides demonstrated through their portraitures of the Pharaoh who was represented as an digesting connexion between life and the hereafter. It was of import to stand for the Pharaoh as an on-going entity that would go on meaning the connexion with the Gods whom Egypt depended upon. Therefore, as noted by Robins, “ the Pharaoh was frequently shown transporting out ‘kingly responsibilities, ‘ possibly being crowned, engaged in a spiritual ceremonial, or stonily accepting Nelumbo nucifera flowers offered by his married woman and kids, ” ( 252 ) . The Pharaoh wished to be accepted into the hereafter at his proper position and possibly as a magnifier of his station, grave alleviations, showed him as being “ mourned by goddesses, in the hopes that they might help the asleep Pharaoh and guarantee his Resurrection ” ( Robins, 249 ) .

The conceptual model of Egyptian workmanship was that functionality remains the primary focal point in the intricate design and ornament of their work, though they are now marveled at and enjoyed for the beauty of the design and colour. Yet, as stated by Robins, Egyptian art encompassed far more than human society ; therefore “ graphics ” was used as a vas “ to stand for, show, harmonize, and laud everything associated with Egyptian life and the saving and manifestation of the Pharaoh through both life and decease ( 252 ) .

Wall Text – Musicians:

Tomb alleviations served functional as opposed to aesthetic intents and, as stated by Russmann, “ grave ornaments were non chosen indiscriminately but each image was in some manner representative of some aspect of Egyptian life ” ( 31 ) . Tomb reliefs non merely highlighted the activities expected to happen in the hereafter, the crafted illustrations established integrity and conformance throughout the civilisation.

The grave alleviation, as stated by Meredith Hooper, “ held assorted intensions which can be deciphered and read, yet one message clearly beheld in all Egyptian pictures was the thought of enduring forever ” ( 14 ) . Egyptians were shown engaged in all activities of life as such activities did non halt due to one ‘s decease, alternatively they continued on in the hereafter. This peculiar alleviation entitled “ Musicians ” depicts a set of six females playing lyres and double-flutes. This alleviation shows, as stated by Hart, “ enjoyment of life to the fullest as demonstrated by the word pictures of music and revelry ” ( 50 ) .

In this alleviation, note the message toward the female sex that they are fertile and vitalizing as evidenced by the fact that they are shown in a nude or about bare province stressing their feminine properties. Additionally, they are shown bring forthing music, no uncertainty motivating felicity, pleasance, and amusement toward their audience, reenforcing the message toward adult females they are suited to entertain and pleasure audiences, which as inferred by Hart, “ included their hubbies and the Pharaoh ” ( 50 ) .

The message is aided in its presentation by the usage of colour which served to bespeak the “ kernel or character of a pictured object, hence, as the instrumentalists are colored a xanthous shadiness, it can be inferred that they are female ” ( Owusu, 48 ) . Furthermore, as Owusu asserts, the sunglassess of white which are integrated into the image reflect “ joy, Godhead visible radiation, and cosmic energy ” ( 48 ) which would hold coincided with the message of joy and everlasting life being portrayed. Finally, the ruddy tones seen in the instrumentalists ‘ tegument besides indicate, as stated by Owusu, “ a stimulating life-affirming radiation ” ( 48 ) which further adds merriment to the scene.

Wall Text – Opening the Mouth Ceremony from the Book of the Dead of Hunefer:

Tomb alleviations provided representations which served to imitate mundane Egyptian Pharaoh life and besides depict the wealths which would, no uncertainty, go available once the asleep Pharaoh had successfully crossed over and been reborn. Some of these representation appeared about as though the craftsmans had designed “ symbolic reminders of specific ceremonials, which if performed right, could act upon the Pharaoh ‘s transition into the underworld ” ( Owusu, 306 ) and his success after Resurrection. As is noted from the Chapter 8 Lecture Notes, “ worlds everyplace have strived throughout history to non merely visualise and gestate what they considered to be godly, but besides to heighten themselves within that image every bit good derive control over those finally unmanageable forces of life and decease, ” ( MacDevitt ) .

The grave alleviation I will be discoursing is titled “ Opening the Mouth Ceremony from the Book of the Dead of Hunefer ” arising from the New Kingdom of Egypt about 1550 BC. This peculiar image depicts a funeral emanation fixing the mummified Pharaoh for a banquet held in his award. We see grievers in the signifier of two adult females who fondly grasp the ma ‘s patchs while “ the ma itself is being supported by a priest have oning the costume of Anubis, the Canis aureus headed God of the dead, while two lesser priests touch the eyes, ears, nose, and oral cavity of the mummified Pharaoh under the observant eyes of a leopard-skin clad priest ” ( Perl, 67 ) . This ceremonial, as suggested by Perl, was carried out in order to “ reconstruct the asleep Pharaoh ‘s senses to him so that he might hear, see, gustatory sensation, odor, and walk about one time his Resurrection was complete ” ( 68 ) . Sacrifices were frequently offered at the scene of the funeral as this alleviation shows in its word picture of a calf that stands solemnly with his female parent, expecting the sacrificial ceremonial in which the calf would be offered. This alleviation, placed on the grave walls of many asleep Pharaoh ‘ , offered a crafted illustration of how the Pharaoh could anticipate to recover control of his bodily senses and therefore, was a message of learning for both the priests every bit good as the looker-ons. This grave alleviation besides correlated with the Egyptian thought of “ making functional artefacts ” which could go on to be utilized even after decease.

We note the presence of divinities and usage of colour which is reflected in the alleviation and is typical of Egyptian civilization. For illustration, I cite the presence of Anubis, Canis aureus headed God of the dead, whom the priest has disguised himself as. Anubis was thought to be, as stated by Owusu, a “ specializer in embalming mas and defender of the asleep Pharaoh should he meet any evil during his Resurrection ” ( 55 ) . I besides note the alone usage of colour seen throughout this crafted illustration. We may detect the colour black seen in the skin colour of the priests and mourning ladies which “ embodies the underworld as it signals the land to which all life must return for metempsychosis ” ( Owusu, 48 ) . Yet, in a dramatic contrast, the colour white is used to denote deity and pureness ; while, the bluish green which is seen in the headgear of the mummified Pharaoh implies, as stated by Owusu, “ adulthood every bit good as the integrity of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. ” ( 48 ) .

Wall Text – Mummified Body with Anubis ( from the Book of the Dead )

Tomb alleviations were designed by the Egyptian craftsmen under the Pharaoh ‘s way to stand for non merely life events but besides events which took topographic point in readying for decease. In their quest to populate everlastingly, as stated by Lila Perl, “ the Egyptians managed to continue an unerasable image of the Egyptian manner of life ” ( 112 ) , even as they prepared for decease. Tomb reliefs served as an effectual device for the ancient Egyptian Pharaoh to “ rip off decease and go on to seek favour with the Gods while steering his people ( Perl, 16 ) . Therefore, grave alleviations were frequently created to demo the Pharaoh on his manner to his hereafter, normally through the mummification and burial procedures.

The peculiar alleviation I would wish to discourse is titled “ Mummified Body with Anubis ( from the Book of the Dead ) . This alleviation depicts a mummified Pharaoh lying serenely on a couch while Anubis, the Egyptian God of mummification, tickers over him. This alleviation symbolizes the of import connexion the Pharaoh portions with the God Anubis. Anubis carefully checks the asleep Pharaoh ‘s patchs and ensures his comfort in readying for the Pharaoh ‘s journey to the hereafter. The Pharaoh will be reborn, therefore restoring a connexion with the Gods guaranting the continuance of Egypt.

The Pharaoh reclines upon a lion-headed sofa as the king of beasts was an of import animate being in Egyptian civilization. He “ was thought to be the defender of the male monarch ‘s throne ” ( Owusu 275 ) and as such the male monarch, as Owusu farther elaborates, “ was more than willing to be equated with king of beastss and was frequently shown with lionesses when fixing for conflict or hunting ” ( 275 ) . The king of beasts farther symbolized the metempsychosis rhythm which lends cogency and strength to the Pharaoh ‘s journey as he undertakes his ain Resurrection.

We note, as stated by Hooper, “ the Pharaoh has been painted to look as he would, most likely, hold wished to look ” ( 28 ) as evidenced by his evident young person contrasted with the wisdom reflected in his stare. We may besides detect Anubis ‘s hunched position as he bends over the mummified Pharaoh. As a member of the Godhead, Anubis appears taller than the Pharaoh which symbolizes his greater stature. The usage of colour besides appears symbolic and even dry in this alleviation. For illustration, note the black which is the chief colour in the alleviation. Black, as stated by Owusu, “ was traditionally considered to incarnate the underworld, nevertheless, it besides, in Egyptian civilization serves to typify life ” ( 48 ) as the black silt of the Nile River made possible the continued being of Egypt. Additionally, the white background which both Anubis and the Pharaoh are framed against indicates, as stated by Owusu, “ deity, pureness and cosmic power ” ( 48 ) .

Question 5

Art can be a powerful tool of dialogue, frequently used to “ perpetuate bing attitudes and cultural thoughts while other art images may be used to deter or understate unwanted images ( Lazzari, 171 ) . Within the context of this statement, thoughts about reproduction and nurturing are represented through the word picture, of prehistoric birthrate goddess Venus of Willendorf and the Polynesian God Te Rongo who portion many similarities and differences.

In discoursing the similarities between the two pieces I would wish to indicate out that both pieces were valued in their several civilizations as representative of the construct of birthrate. Both birthrate Gods stand to progress the conceptual model which each society is built upon. For illustration, the Polynesian societies which crafted the God Te Rongo appears to hold adhered to the construct of work forces being foremost in the reproduction processes while the prehistoric people seemed to put adult females as the foremost individuals in the reproduction procedure. I besides would wish to indicate out the fact that both pieces emphasize the gentalia in the male and female figures emphasizing their importance as birthrate gods/goddesses. The two birthrate Gods have even been intentionally deformed to further propose their wellness, verve and strength in child-bearing as evidenced in the Venus ‘s big deformed chests, tummy and hips while “ Te Rongo ” has been crafted with an vertical phallus. I note a elusive similarity in that both people seem to hold a function as nurturer. Venus ‘s big chests speak to the amplitude of her milk which may help in the life-affirming procedure of her kids while Te Rongo is besides portrayed as nurturer evidenced by the fact that his kids have been etched onto his individual in a pseudo-birth pouch as though he is supplying them life and strength by virtuousness of their connection to him.

Differences between the two figures appear to be clearer and possibly more touchable than were the similarities. For illustration, the primary difference is seen in that Te Rongo is a male God while the prehistoric Venus is female. The following difference I note is seen in the workmanship of the two figures. For illustration, I note Te Rongo has been carefully carved, his organic structure skilfully proportioned, characteristics good defined with his “ boies ” flawlessly etched below his thorax capacity. Therefore, the creative persons have given Te Rongo an individuality. In contrast, the Venus of Willendorf has no clearly discernible characteristics other than her weaponries which are folded across her hypertrophied chests. I note, her deficiency of separating facial characteristics, in fact her full caput appears to be obscured, set uping her deficiency of individuality outside of a birthrate figure. Continuing with the construct of set uping individuality, I note the fact that Te Rongo has his kids impressed into his individual serves as a kind of “ ID ” so that there can be no uncertainty whom the male parent figure is. Additionally, the fact that Te Rongo is seen with the kids serves to supply him with a certain position, as opposed to Venus, who lacks a similar stature as her kids are non present.

I besides note a difference in that, as stated by MacDevitt ‘s Podcast lesson 6, Te Rongo ‘s offspring is linked to his gender because we can clearly see the consequences of his reproduction attempts while the Venus nowadayss us with no clear grounds outside of her conceited tummy and chests. Te Rongo besides, due to the fact that he holds the kids seems to be portrayed as bearer, nurturer, and health professional of the kids while the best I might deduce about Venus is that she is bearer and nurturer of her kids.

In decision, these two plants differ in their portraiture of male and female birthrate figures every bit good as the functions each dramas in the reproduction and nurturing of the kids. Yet, as Lazzari notes, each is similar as they are both “ extremely charged powerful images that create or perpetuate thoughts about reproduction, birthrate and personal worth ” ( 171 ) .

Lazzari, Margaret and Dona Schlesier. Researching Art: A Global Thematic Approach. 3rd erectile dysfunction. California: Thomas Higher Education, 2008. Print.

MacDevitt, James. Reproduction Podcast Notes Lesson 6. The Learning Scholar. 07 March 2011. Web. 10 March 2011.

Question 3

Art serves many maps frequently in conformity with the civilization it is found in as the peculiar civilization will progress, through their art, thoughts and constructs sing the mystical and Godhead. As Lazzari provinces, “ every civilization has strived to hold on the Godhead kingdom, communicate with it, understand it, be joined to it and even progress ideal values through it ( 201 ) . Artists, as noted by Lazzari, “ frequently attempt to typify the civilization ‘s thought of Eden and unity ” ( 202 ) . This word picture of Eden and unity is variant nevertheless, as evidenced in the featured images of Zeus/ Poseidon and Shiva.

The differences between Zeus/ Poseidon and Shiva can be discussed through a lens of cultural philosophy. For illustration, as stated by Lazzari, the Greeks “ believed themselves to be superior to other faiths that worshipped animalistic or realistic divinities. ” Therefore, as Zeus/ Poseidon is representative of a divinity, he is portrayed as the Grecian ideal of humanistic flawlessness. Shiva, on the other manus, is an embodiment from the Hindu faith that is believed to be the underlying consolidative force behind life. The Hindus, as is stated by Lazzari, “ besides believe divinities can non be represented as “ normal or cognizable ” as by virtuousness of their deity, they are “ pure and unnatural ” ( 204 ) . Therefore, as stated by Podcast 8, Shiva is shown to hold extra weaponries and a 3rd oculus which establishes the “ superhuman strength and powers ” of Shiva. Differences are besides seen in that Zeus/ Poseidon, despite being “ God of sky, storms and or sea, ” is merely one of many divinities which the Greeks worship while Shiva, despite being known by other names, is the considered “ the primary manifestation of the “ Unbounded ” ” ( Lazzari, 204 ) . Correlating with this idea is the thought that the Greeks have assigned one specific power to their Gods while Hindus believe Shiva personifies and balances all that is in being in the existence. For illustration, as Zeus/Poseidon merely exacts control over the sky, sea, and storms, Shiva stabilizes “ good and evil, light and dark, male and female so that the existence is harmonized ” ( Lazzari, 204 )

Further differences between Shiva and Zeus/Poseidon can be discussed through a proficient point of view. For illustration, we see in conformity with the Grecian ideal of “ flawlessness and beauty, the mature face of Zeus beginning by his face fungus, coil of hair every bit good as the powerful outsize portraiture of the God which conveys action, verve, grace and self-respect ( Lazzari, 204 ) . Zeus / Poseidon stands unsloped, eyes focused, one arm cocked back as if to let go of either a lightning bolt or a trident, the other descrying his mark, knees somewhat dead set and pess aligned symmetrically on the land. Shiva, on the other manus, “ is shown as supple, sleek, and graceful, ” his organic structure aligned so that he easy stands on one pes, “ one arm extended keeping an hourglass to stand for the passing of clip, a fire cupped in the other manus typifying devastation, while his upraised pes represents release from the grounded Earth and his other pes, instead than being planted on the land, alternatively casts on the ‘baby of ignorance ‘ ” ( Lazzari, 205 ) .

Similarities between the two divinities, although apparently more hard to analyse are seen in the fact that both are Supreme Gods. For illustration, as male monarch of the sky, storm, and sea Zeus/ Poseidon is supreme over all other divinities worshiped by the Greeks and Shiva is besides a manifestation of a supreme being. A 2nd similarity is seen in that both divinities are represented as being armed with the arms needed to reconstruct balance as needed in their several civilizations. For illustration, we see Zeus/Poseidon at one clip gripped either a lightning bolt or trident piece, as stated by Podcast 8, Shiva grasps the “ fire of devastation and is granted excess strength by virtuousness of his extra weaponries and oculus. ” I besides point to the similarities between design and signifier of the two divinities. For illustration, it is stated by Podcast 8, “ the Grecian people, with their steadfast fear for humanitarianism, represented their Gods as being human, ” yet, the talk, goes on to province, “ Hindu Gods are besides humanized, despite their usual excess limbs. ” Additionally, it is seen that both figures are balanced, proposing synchronism with the civilizations they symbolize. For illustration, as stated by Lazzari, “ Shiva is the incarnation of cosmic energy yet the balanced airs besides contains the construct of ageless hush ” ( 205 ) . Likewise, Zeus ‘s “ pose establishes within the perceiver a sense of action and energy while staying poised and dignified ” ( Lazzari, 204 ) .

In decision, as stated by Lazzari, “ creative persons, when making images of holy existences frequently craft the divinities as idealised forms of worlds and frequently imputing to that divinity, a peculiar domain of influence ” ( 241 ) . Lazzari goes on to province, “ superb colourss, brightness, extra limbs, and forms help to convey the feeling of transcendency. ” Within this model, similarities between the two divinities are seen in the humanisation of their characteristics, yet differences can be seen in that the Hindu God, Shiva, was farther magnified in his deity by “ extra limbs, colored skin tones and a 3rd oculus ” while the Greek God, Zeus/Poseidon, “ was an idealised human adult male ” ( Podcast 8 ) .

Lazzari, Margaret and Dona Schlesier. Researching Art: A Global Thematic Approach. 3rd erectile dysfunction. California: Thomas Higher Education, 2008. Print.

MacDevitt, James. Reproduction Podcast Notes Lesson 8. The Learning Scholar. 07 March 2011. Web. 12 March 2011.