Relationship of Selected Anthropometric Measurement with the Performance of Basketball Players of Faridabad District (Haryana)
Satish & Anangpal (Research Scholars) Singhania University Dr. Kamlesh Kumar Sharma (Research Supervisor) – Singhania University TITLE OF THE RESEARCH STUDY: Relationship of selected anthropometric measurement with the performance of basketball players of Faridabad district (Haryana) Abstract The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between anthropometric measurements to the playing ability in basketball (Jonshon’s Basketball test). 50 male and 50 female basketball national level players of Faridabad District (Haryana state) were selected as subject for the purpose of this study.
Present study exhibited the insignificant relationship with field goal speed test (basketball playing ability) and with throw for accuracy at the chosen level but the value of product moment correlation is quite higher which may be understood that the size of body may contribute to basketball playing ability when combined with other variables. Finding of study show the insignificant relationship between body weight and basketball playing ability which may be attribute to the fact that basketball players do not require bulky body which may hidden the performance of the players.
The findings reveal that insignificant relationship exist between let length and Field ball speed test and dribble test (basketball playing ability) no significant relationship was found with throw ball accuracy. It is because of the fact that a leg with a good length but without explosive strength to be contributing factors for speed and jumping ability which is required for performing with in basketball game. In case of field goal speed test ,throw for accuracy of playing ability there was a significant difference between the Thigh girth (anthropometric measurement) as the calculated value (20. 864)(0. 2445) was greater than the table value (0. 195) at 0. 05 level of significance and no significant relationship was found with dribble test. In case of field goal speed test, throw for accuracy of playing ability there was a significant difference between the calf girth (anthropometric measurement) as the calculated value (0. 3440)(0. 2490) was greater than the table value (0. 195) at 0. 05 level of significance and no significant relationship was found with dribble test.
In case of field goal speed test and dribble test of playing ability there was a significant difference between the Arm girth (anthropometric measurement) as the calculated value (0. 4096)(0. 4685) was greater than the table value (0. 195) at 0. 05 level of significance and no significant relationship was found with throw for accuracy. Arm with a good length can be contributing factor for some of the basketball skill such as long passes; shooting etc. but without good strength can be contributing factor for basketball playing ability.
The data was analyzed by using Pearson’s product moment correlation (r) for assessing the relationship of basketball playing ability to selected variable of anthropometric measurement. Key words: Jonshon’s Basketball Test, Goal Speed Test, Dribble Test, Throw for Accuracy. Introduction Modern age is characterized by the progress, which is being made in all fields. Every individual is engaged in a race to excel others. As in other fields, it is equally true in the field of games and sports.
Scientific investigations into performances of sportsmen are playing an increasingly important role in the training of athletes in a scientific way to attain excellence in performances in different spheres of sports. Basketball has gained tremendous popularity worldwide because of its dynamic characteristics as a team sport . In this ball game, players generally are to cover about 4500-5000m during the 40-min game which requires a variety of multidirectional movements, e. g. running, dribbling, shuffling of positions and jumping .
It has been well-established that specific physical characteristics or an anthropometric profile indicate whether a player would be suitable for the competition at the highest level in a specific sport [2, 10, 12, 17, 31, 33, and 34]. In fact, the information regarding the anthropometric status of an athlete is essential for two main reasons, firstly, to design an effective training program, and, secondly to select the event-specific talents in the athletes. Some anthropometric characteristics, e. g. length and breadth measurements, are genetically determined and can hardly be changed with the effects of a training program.
Various anthropometric characteristics were found to be closely associated with excellent performances . In endurance games like basketball, a number of anthropometric variables have been reported to have an effect on endurance performance: body weight [6, 32], BMI , body fat , length of the upper leg ,length of limbs , height [6, 26], thigh girth , total skin folds  and skin fold thickness of the lower limbs [4, 25]. Although the game of basketball was invented and developed in North America, it has become one of the most popular sports around the globe .
During competitions and practice sessions, players are to involve in heavy schedules, which requires careful short- and long-term planning of their training programs . Several studies have examined the relationships between the anthropometric characteristics of basketball players [1, 3, 5, 8, 9, 22, 24, 29, 30, 40 ]. It was reported that top teams’ players were taller and had a longer arm span compared with bottom teams’ players who took part in 1994 Women’s World Basketball Championship . Greek elite female players were also taller and leaner than their handball counterparts .
In male players too, moderate skilled level players weighed less and were shorter in stature than top level players . It was also reported that elite female basketball guards had greater mesomorphy than centers and less ectomorphy than forwards or centers . However, the arm anthropometric study of the basketball players remains largely unreported. The aim of the study was to evaluate the arm anthropometric characteristics in Indian inter-university basketball players and the correlations among the characteristics studied.
In order to evaluate the physical characteristics of the hand, the grip strength was chosen as one of the indicators of hand functions. In fact, in case of any overhead game, extensor as well as flexor muscles of the arm and the hand have considerable influence on the success. Another objective of the study was to search the correlation of handgrip strength with the arm anthropometric characteristics studied. Materials and methods subjects: The present cross-sectional study was based on randomly selected 60 Indian inter-university basketball players (35 males and 25 females) aged 18–25 years (mean age 17. 9 years, ± 1. 56) of six Indian universities, namely Panjab University, Chandigarh, Guru Jambheshwer University, Hisar, Maharshi Dayanand University, Faridabad, Haryana, Delhi University, Delhi, Kurukshretra University, Kurukshreta and Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, who participated in the Inter-university Championship organized in Maharshi Dayanand University, Faridabad, Haryana, India. An adequate number of controls (n = 102, 52 males and 50 females, mean age17. 76 ± 2. 11 years) with no particular athletic background were also collected from the same place for comparisons.
The age of the subjects was recorded from the date of birth registered in their respective institutes. A written consent was obtained from the participants to participate in this study, which conformed to the Declaration of Helsinki. The data were collected under natural environmental conditions in the morning (between 8 am to 12 noon). The study was approved by the local ethical committee. Testing protocol anthropometric measurement: Three anthropometric characteristics, viz. height, weight and BMI, nine arm anthropometric characteristics, viz. pper arm length, forearm length, total arm length, upper arm circumference, arm muscle area, upper arm area, upper arm bone-free muscle mass, arm fat area and arm fat index, and grip strength of both right and left hands were measured on each subject using standard techniques  by the same investigators and were measured in triplicate with the median value used as the criterion. The height was recorded during inspiration using a stadio meter (Holtain Ltd. , Crymych, Dyfed, UK) to the nearest 0. 1 cm.
The subject was asked to stand erect on the stadio meter barefoot. The horizontal bar of the stadio meter was placed on the subject’s vertex and the readings were recorded. The weight was measured by digital standing scales (Model DS-410, Seiko, Tokyo, Japan) to the nearest 0. 1 kg. The subject was asked to stand erect on the digital weighing machine barefoot and with minimum clothes on. The readings were recorded from the scales of the digital weighing machine. The BMI was then calculated using the formula weight (kg) / height 2 (m).
The triceps skin fold was measured on the back of the upper arm over the triceps muscle using Harpenden skin fold caliper (Holtain Ltd, Crosswell, Crymych, UK) to the nearest 0. 2 mm. The arm girth was measured from the mid of the upper arm by a flexible metallic tape (Holtain Ltd) from the right side of the subject. The arm muscle girth, the arm-muscle area, the arm area, the arm fat area and the arm fat index were then calculated using standard methodologies  as: Arm muscle girth (cm) = G arm – ( ? Skin fold triceps); Arm muscle area, cm 2= [G arm – (?
Skin fold triceps)] / 4? ; Arm area (A), cm2= (G arm) 2 / 4? ; Arm fat area, cm2= arm area – arm muscle area; Arm fat index, % fat area = (arm fat area / arm area), where G arm = Arm girth Handgrip Strength Measurement: The grip strength of both right and left hands was measured using a standard adjustable digital handgrip dynamometer (Takei Scientific Instruments Co. , LTD. Japan) at standing position with the shoulder adducted and neutrally rotated and the elbow in full extension. The dynamometer was held freely without support, not touching the subject’s trunk.
The position of the hand remained constant without the downward direction. The subjects were asked to put maximum force on the dynamometer thrice from both sides of the hands. The maximum value was recorded in kilograms. All subjects were tested after 3 minutes of independent warm-up. Thirty seconds’ time interval was maintained between each handgrip strength testing . The instruments were calibrated prior to use and all measurements were taken on the subject’s right side. Statistical Analysis:
Standard descriptive statistics (Mean ± Standard Deviation) were determined for directly measured and derived variables. One way analysis of variance was tested for the comparisons of data among the Indian inter-university basketball players and the controls (both males and females), followed by post hoc Bonferroni test. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were applied to establish the relationships among the variables measured. The data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) version17. 0. A 5% level of probability was used to indicate statistical significance.
Collection of data: The data collected on 50 male and 50 female basketball University level players of Faridabad District, Haryana India, who attended daily basketball match practice period on Johnson Basketball test along with anthropometric measurement and selected physical variable was examined by Pearson’s product moment co-relation to find out the relationship of basketball playing ability to each of these variable separately. The criterion measures chosen were 1. Number of Basket by layup shot made in 30 seconds. The score recorded was one point for each basket counted. 2.
Total point scored in ten trails by throwing the ball at target made of three rectangles their sizes are 60″x40″, 40″x25″ and 20″x 10″. 3. Number of stools that the subject passes in 30 seconds using zigzag dribbling, one point was awarded for each stool crossed. Results and Discussion: Relationship of selected anthropometric measurement to the playing ability. The data obtain on each of speed strength independent variable of selected physical and anthropometric variable, were co-related with the criterion variable Johnson basketball test in order to find out the relationship between the dependent variable.
The analysis of data revealed that there are significant relationships between Anthropometric measurement and field goal speed test, throw for accuracy, dribble test; anthropometric measurement’s allows carrying out different movements with desired pace in a synchronies way the anthropometric test involves much of running with quick layup shot end rapid directional changes as like in dribble test. The analysis of data revealed that there are significant relationship between some of the selected anthropometric variables with the playing ability performances of the limbs saves.
Extra expenditure of energy and attributed to the advantage to the stride length . The individual to has good height and leg length naturally is arm length will be mare. The body weight of an individual may help him to incited movement. Therefore in may be logically accepted that those who are tall and heavy athletes as well as having longer upper limbs and longer lower extremities could have performed better on these items. More ever many students have also shown that tall athletes have advantageous position oven the shorter athletes.
Longer stride depends upon the leg length of an individual therefore. Those with long limbs could have advantage in running event significant relationship between playing ability and leg length may be attributed to this reason. The significant relationship of arm length may be contributed to the fact that while passing and throwing the basket ball with longer upper limbs have greater ability to maintain contact and develop with the ball through greater distance to his at proper target. This result can be substantiated with matheu‘s study.
Besides weight, height, Leg length and arm length also contribute to the playing ability. Better thigh girth may be constructed to have greater muscle mass and in turn greater strength. Therefore performance in layup shot was probably better. References: Allen D. Phillips and James E. Hornak 1979. Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education. John Willey and Sons, New York. Batty E. 1970. Soccer Coaching the Modern Way. Trend & Co. Ltd. , London Latimer Choudhary S. C. and Sinha DB. 1979. Intermediate Physics Modern Book Agency Pvt. Td. , Calcutta
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